Why people commit crimes?Despite the various public measures directed to motivation of citizens to conform to the established laws and the rules, many people daily them break. It is quite often difficult to understand why people quite ordinary in appearance suddenly commit a serious crime. Most often it is mentally healthy persons, including children and teenagers.
Social conditions play a part in an origin of illegal behavior. Various public processes, first of all, concern to them. It is, for example, weakness of the power and imperfection of the legislation, social cataclysms and a low standard of living.
Some people commit crimes because in a present consumer society the vast majority at any cost strives for the income, consumption and success. To people, anyway “ removed aside “ from the public benefits, it is difficult to achieve the desired objectives in the legal way.
Tendency of society to hang labels can also be the social reason of antisocial behavior of the specific personality. In some cases the steady antisocial behavior is formed by the principle of a vicious circle: primary, incidentally committed crime - punishment - the experience of the violent relations (which is most presented in jails) - the subsequent difficulties of social adaptation owing to a label “ criminal “ - accumulation socially - economic difficulties - more serious crime etc. Thus, society itself by means of unjustified actions and too serious punishments trains criminals of whom it would be desirable to get rid.
An essential role in an origin of antisocial behavior is played by a family. It is possible to list some factors promoting emergence of illegal acts. It, for example: excessive or continuous application of punishments in a family; the insufficient influence of the father complicating normal development of moral consciousness; indulgence to the child in performance of his desires; insufficient insistence of parents; inconsistency of requirements to the child from parents owing to what the child has no clear understanding of standards of behavior; change of parents; the conflicts between parents; assimilation by the child through learning in a family or in group of antisocial values.
Specific features of illegal behavior significantly are defined also by sexual distinctions. For example, it is well known that the illegal behavior is more characteristic of a male. It is possible to speak about the crimes more peculiar to women or men. Such crimes as murder of children, prostitution, theft in shops, a thicket make women. Men more often hijack cars, make robberies, thefts, put injuries, kill. There are also typically man`s crimes, for example, rape.
It is obvious that it makes sense to speak about antisocial behavior of the person only on reaching a certain age, not earlier than 6 - 8 years. As a rule, the small child cannot realize enough the behavior, control it and correlate to social norms. Only at school the child for the first time and really faces basic social requirements, and only since school age from the child strict following to the basic rules of behavior is expected. From the moment of receipt in school the stage of intensive socialization of the personality in the conditions of the increased mental opportunities of the child begins. From now on the defined actions of the child can really already be considered as brought closer to illegal. In younger school age (6 - 11 years) the antisocial behavior can be shown in the following forms: disorderly conduct, violation of school rules and discipline, truancies of lessons, escapes from the house, falsity and theft.
Illegal actions at teenage age (12 - 17 years) are even more conscious and any. Along with “ habitual “ for this age violations, such as thefts and hooliganism - at boys, thefts and prostitution - at girls, got a wide circulation their new forms - drug traffic and the weapon, racket, a pimping, fraud.
Criminal career, as a rule, begins with bad study and alienation from school (it is negative - the hostile attitude towards her). Then there is an alienation from a family against family problems and “ not pedagogical “ education methods. Entry into criminal group and commission of crime becomes the following step.
As the most adverse signs in respect of further formation of antisocial behavior it is possible to consider: lack of conscience and sense of guilt, pathological falsity, the consumer attitude towards people, indifference, untidiness, the expressed psychopathology.
The question of influence of psychopathology on antisocial behavior of the personality remains debatable. As the most widespread anomalies are called: psikhopatiya; alcoholism; neurotic frustration; the residual phenomena cherepno - brain injuries and organic diseases of a brain; intellectual insufficiency.
Thus, it is possible to allocate several main groups of offenders:
- the situational offender (whose illegal actions are mainly provoked by a situation);
- the subcultural offender (the violator identified with group antisocial values);
- the neurotic offender (whose asocial actions act as a consequence of the conflict and alarm);
- “ organic “ the offender (making illegal actions owing to brain damages with prevalence of impulsiveness, intellectual insufficiency and affectivity);
- the psychotic offender (making delicts owing to a heavy mental disorder - psychosis, obscuring of consciousness);
- the antisocial personality (whose antisocial actions are caused by a specific combination of personal lines: hostility, backwardness of the highest feelings, inability to proximity).