Before death the Admiral Kolchak long looked at the Pole star We are sentenced to death,
I only term is delayed by the little.
We live as in days of war -
MiG is fleeting and fragile.
Through war, through prison
Going as from passions of vespers,
we to the house Bear to
the Lamp weak and incorrect -
That not without reason we passed,
That those who will live for us
From a spark could light
the unfading flame
of Exactly 90 years to that back, 7. 2. 1920, in far Siberian Irkutsk events which, maybe, and are not so symbolical as murder on July 17, 1918 Nicholas II together with his family - the wife and children (four daughters - Olga, Tatyana, Maria, Anastasia - and the eleven-year-old son Alexey) -
" were played; That - made to you,
These innocent girls
That their cruel lash
To the dark cellar
To trunks of executioners
To their Golgotha but are not less significant and essential
to the contemporary history of Russia. And not only it. by
this day Bolsheviks and their political allies - the Social Revolutionaries (representing, by the way, the party which is most larded by a police agency in the Russian history) shot the last Great Russian of the first half of the XX century - the polar researcher, the designer, the hero of three wars, the commander of the Russian Black Sea Fleet and the last real possibility of Russia to keep in integrity the statehood in the face of red infection . They shot the Supreme Governor of the Russian state - the admiral Kolchak.
After 1918, during red terror, under different pretexts, and even without them, thousands of enemies of a new order were killed. Then why the event 7 - go has February, 1920 such historical weight and value?
That morning shot not only the Great Admiral, but also hope of Russia for legality and welfare. On the world and good in its borders. Also the purpose of this murder was such.
Alexander Vasilyevich Kolchak was a son of the hero of the Crimean war of 1853 - 55 and defenses of Sevastopol which by miracle avoided death, having got the hardest wound at protection of the Stone tower on Malakhovom Kurgane. Unconscious found it in tower ruins, the French who took it with fight. They captivated the father Alexander Vasilyevich, but saved to him life.
The ancestor of future admiral was a commandant of Poland which twice became famous in the history of Hotynsky fortress. Its sort lived in the territory of Poland till 1795 - i.e. to the third, last section of the Furnace Pospolita of Both People on which existence of independent Polish rocydapctva is interrupted.
Such family tree obliges - and the son of the hero becomes the officer of fleet. At the age of 25 years publishes the serious scientific article, and one year goes later to polar expedition as a result of which becomes the member of RIGO. Besides, it on foot, on ices, passed from the island Benetta to the mouth of Lena (distance from Gdansk to Helsinki).
Then Alexander Vasilyevich directed the polar rescue party which passed along the same route in the direct and opposite direction, but already on dogsleds (exactly - in - exactly as the hero of my childhood Rual Amundsen).
In 1904 in an aura of glory of the polar researcher Kolchak goes to St. Petersburg to become engaged to the future wife Sofia. But he was not fated to reach the capital of the Empire. In Alexander Vasilyevich`s way overtakes a message about the beginning of the Japanese war. He understands that its place beside the commander of the Pacific squadron - the admiral Makarov, and goes to theater of military operations where becomes the commander of the " warship; Angry .
But there, on the place, having realized that most military of actions on the land will be important for final result of war, asks to translate his commander batteries 75 - millimetric tools. Do not refuse to it the translation and before the falling Port - Artur (05. 01. 1905), it is on this dangerous and important site of defense of fortress.
Perhaps, in Japanese to captivity Kolchak met one of heroes of Tsushima - the warrant officer Volkovitsky (the famous hero a spot of Tsushima - Novikov - the Surf wrote about it), who in 35 years together with few officers will manage to avoid the Katyn tragedy. Or, otherwise, - flight to Manchuria. Such words I. Stalin objyasnilv. To Sikorsky strange evaporation from Soviet style bondage of 22 thousand Polish prisoners - actually shot in the spring of their 1940 in Katyn, Kharkiv and Tver.
Kolchak will be taken prisoner wounded. But in four months, from - for rheumatism, Japanese will release it, and Alexander Vasilyevich will leave inhospitable coast of Japan. Absolutely on other the Most great Humanist of All Times and the People treated further prisoners. And not only with them, but also with the soldiers who are coming back from enemy captivity.
After extraordinary production in Kolchak`s captains occupied not only military affairs and cares. It designed ice breakers and published the scientific article on glaciology. But military everything - prevailed. Alexander Vasilyevich was one of those who prepared the Baltic Fleet for future European war which became almost inevitable after from the post Pyotr Stolypin`s successor - Sergey Witte was displaced.
During war of World War I Kolchak makes the amazing career - in 40 years becomes counter - the admiral and the commander of the Black Sea Fleet. It plans operation, decisive for this water area, - capture Bosporus and passages Dardanelskogo. Those passages about which to themselves British already broke teeth, and career - their first lord Admiralteystva - Winston Churchill.
Unfortunately, February revolution puts an end to these plans. Formally for attempts of preservation of military discipline by the Fleet ships, but being afraid of Kolchak actually much more as figures, authoritative in naval and military circles, and, respectively, the potential political opponent, Kerensky discharges the admiral of command of the Black Sea fleet and sends with mission to America. (A of the Jew of the mad Mongol revolting to it the capitals for the power this leader did not notice as threat!)
Zlopoluchna those nations over which figures become the biggest chiefs, similar Rydz - Smigla, Jozef Beck, Horti or Kerensky. They should pay then for it in blood hectoliters
Kolchak`s Departure from Sevastopol and the Crimea had inevitable consequences for Russia - after Bolshevist October revolution and dispersal of the Constituent assembly by them, in the south of Russia the center of resistance to authorities of Councils and the bloody crowd supporting her is formed. But the lack of authority, absence of its ranks of the indisputable leader becomes the biggest minus of the white movement. And the best of all possible candidates for this role is at this time in far America where on it, in abundance, pour numerous the offer convenient and prosperity.
But Kolchak rejects all these offers and through Japan comes back to Russia. Reaches Omsk where offer it a post of the Minister of War in the local government - Directories. But as the Directory was engaged in banquets and meetings, than real work and the organization of fight more, the officers revolted with this circumstance urge Kolchak to become a dictator.
Addressing the population, 20. 11. 1918, Alexander Vasilyevich declared: Having accepted a cross of this power in exclusively difficult conditions of civil war and full frustration of the state life, I declare that I will not go neither on the way of reaction, nor on a disastrous way of party membership .
Further the Supreme Governor proclaimed the purposes and tasks of the new power. The first, most actual task was called strengthening and increase of fighting capacity of army. II, inseparably linked with the first - victory over the Bolshevism . The third task which solution admitted possible only on condition of a victory, it was proclaimed revival and revival of the perishing state . All activity appeared aimed at that the temporary Supreme power of the Supreme Governor and Supreme Commander could transfer destiny of the state to hands of the people, having provided to it to arrange public administration voluntarily .
After coming to power (as a matter of fact Mission Imposible ) Kolchak undertakes a number of measures which have to lead to fundamental change in war with Bolsheviks. And progress did not keep themselves waiting long. All Urals were soon won, Ufa, Yekaterinburg are taken, to Perm. White armies approached Kazan and Samara.
Unfortunately mistakes in the organization and selection of commanders (though, what mistakes? Kolchak just had no big choice), general theft and embezzlement of public funds, excessive cruelty in relation to the civilian population, quickly transferred the first progress to a smooth strip of military defeats.
The western allies promising the unlimited help military deliveries did not execute the word (From where we know it?!). The army began to recede to the East. Only then heads of the antibolshevitsky movement - Denikin in the Crimea (on the place where could and there had to be A. B. K.) and Yudenich on Severo - the West recognized over themselves the administration of the Admiral. But the moment was missed. Kolchak could not use these overdue recognitions any more. Was too late! Everything was made too late!
In June, 1919, after the first defeats, Kolchak rejected the proposal of the Finnish marshal Mannerheim (the Finnish Pilsudsky, fortunately for Finns, living for 16 years longer) about approach to Petrograd. For the great patriot the possibility of capture of the capital by foreign army was intolerable. It is a pity! And this circumstance could change all course of civil war. Lenin with companions would have only Moscow. Which Denikin`s armies already approached. But Kolchak, rejected Mannerheim`s proposal and unmercifully plundering the local population denikovtsy will be rejected by Budyonny`s cavalry.
The Admiral who is continuously pushed aside to the East had a two-edged sword - treasure in the form of big reserves of the Russian gold. He could save Russia, but as a result - lost it. The Czechoslovak case which is a part of army of Kolchak, neispolzuyemy at the front (probably, only, who fought in its structure, so it is the author and, most likely, a prototype of the most famous fighter of the world literature - Yaroslyava Gashek`s hero), it was seduced on this gold and in an exchange for the right of safe return home (it is sure - with corresponding souvenirs from the same treasure) 15. 01. 1920 perfidiously arrested and, together with gold, gave the Commander-in-chief to the winning Bolsheviks represented by Irkutsk Council, by then cunning (iblagodarya change of Czechoslovaks) the seized city.
This shame was approved by the commander of intervention groups - Jeanine, having personal offense on A. B. Kolchak. So the Czech brothers were at war with Bolsheviks (for historical satisfaction I will remember that that them too thanked in 1948 and in 1968) .
Early in the morning on February 7, 1920, before the dawn, after the interrogation continuing 2 weeks Alexander B. Kolchak and the prime minister - the minister of his government Victor Nikolaevich Pepelyaev were killed with shots in a nape, and their bodies - are thrown into an ice-hole of the river of Ushakovk.
It is symptomatic that exactly in 20 years in the same way and the same power will treat also other prisoners from whom most part was before fellow soldiers of Great Kolchak on the Russian army. And God, Honour and the Fatherland were their values too. Let`s remember the motto of White Guards:
Life - to the Fatherland, Vera - to the Lord, Honour - to anybody .
1920 - February 05. The encoded note in Revolutionary Military Council 5 - y armies is received (It is transmitted through Sklyansky to the chief of Special department Berman Matvei Davydovich: )
At the Russian forum I is somehow naive - patriotically wrote that in difference otzasrany pepikov, Poles never began even to consider the possibility of repayment of the freedom life of the leader and ally. That if instead of the Czechoslovak case in Irkutsk there was a case of the general Dovbopa - Musnitskogo or the fourth division Zheligovskogo - the real soldiers rather would never die, but and would not give for anything the Commander neither for 30 Serebrennikov, nor for gold, bigger by quantity. The freedom is not bought by such shame. If...
Reading about the Polish army in Russia during civil war recently, encountered a mention of the Siberian division of the colonel Rumsha (then Plagues). Also Found confirmation of my intuitive, maybe, naive statement in something: in the fall of 1919. owing to large Bolshevist approach - Polish 5 - aya the division receded to the East as the rear guard of army constraining an enemy pursuit. Its march in depth of Siberia was accompanied by heavy fights in difficult conditions of the Siberian winter. By the way, around railway stations Tutalskaya, Litvinovo and the Taiga. In January, 1920, after secret contacts between the Czechoslovak case and Bolsheviks, the division was surrounded and forced to capitulation at the railway Cranberry station (to the East from Krasnoyarsk).
Most of the Polish soldiers were taken prisoner and were then are directed to a hard labor in the hardest conditions. Many of them died there and so did not return home...
But about one thousand soldiers and officers did not recognize capitulation and, having shared on small groups, independently broke through to Irkutsk. From there, through Mongolia and Manchuria they reached the coast of the Sea of Japan. Returned home and were in time still to fight in its protection against Guy`s cavalry in the summer of 1920.
Generals of the Admiral betrayed by allies and executed - valorous Vladimir Kappel, and after his heroic death at the front (died of frostbite of legs and pneumonia), Sergey Voytsekhovsky - wanted to pay a tribute to the memory of the Commander-in-chief, having challenged to a duel the commander of the Czechoslovak case, the general Jan Syrovy, later, during the German annexation Sudetov in 1938, the prime minister - the minister of Czechoslovakia. However gallant the general did not lift the gauntlet which is thrown down to him, did not begin to fight and did not protect either the honor, or honor of the Homeland. Shveyk, Judas and a shmaltsovnik [= the traitor of Jews during a natsisky Holocaust] in one.
OPEN LETTER to the GEN. SYROVY
As the captain of the Polish troops, the Slavophile who long ago devoted the life to idea of a unification of Slavs - I address personally you, the General, with heavy for me as Slav, charge.
Ya, the official, the negotiator with you on a direct line from St. Cranberry, I demand from you the answer and I inform your soldiers and the whole world about that shameful treachery which an indelible spot will lay down on your conscience and on yours newcomer Czechoslovak uniform.
you cruelly are mistaken, the General if you think that you, the executioner of Slavs, own hands buried in snow and prisons of Siberia coming back russko - Slavic army with distressful Russian officers, 5 - yu the Polish division and a regiment of Serbians and shamefully betrayed the admiral Kolchak - will with impunity leave Siberia. No, the General, armies died, but Slavic Russia, Poland and Serbia will live and damn forever the murderer of revival of Slavic business.
Ya I demand from you, the General, the answer for our women and children betrayed by you in brothels and public use companions laying aside the delivery facts on the station Tulun, Winter, a Half and Irkutsk of Russians of an ofitserovn my eyes which are in a friendly way transferred under the agreement with you for execution to hands of companions sovdepsko - eserovsky Russia.
But for all of them tortured and shot, undoubtedly, my slav brothers, Russians will demand the answer.
I personally, the General, demand from you the answer at least only for us, Poles.
As the Pole, the officer and the Slav, I address you:
K to barrier, General! Let the spirit of Slavic peoples will solve our dispute - differently, the General, I call you the coward and the rascal, worthy to be the killed in a back.
The captain of the Polish Troops in Siberia
Yasinsky - Stakhurek. 5 - oye February, 1920 .
(G. K. Gins Siberia, Allies and Kolchak volume 2 - oh, p. 507)
MAPT 1920. Signal then appeared in the car with a state package in hands and on desire of the aide-de-camp, a cap. Sketsel to accept from him this package, molodtsevato answered that it is ordered to it to transfer him personally to hands of its Excellency, Commander-in-chief of the Czech Army, the General Syrovy!
of the Gen. Syrovoy rose and accepted a package. Having saluted on military, signal was removed. Opened by Syrova a package... and to our surprise from a package silver coins fell down. Turning pale, reddening, Syrova read the content of paper and then transferred her to me. I took paper in which approximately there was a following:
to the Commander of Czechoslovak Troops general Syrovy.
Officers and soldiers of the Izhevsk and Botkin divisions **) - send to the general Jan Syrovy Thirty silversmiths - the price of Blood of Judas of the traitor. Further signatures followed.
(A. Kotomkin About Chekhosl. Legions in Siberia p. 148 - 149.
The most brave heroes of Kolchak in Siberia:
gen. Kappel Vladi ́ world Oskarovich of
Voytsekhovsky Sergey Nikolaevich
5 - aya a sibiriysky Polish division plk. Rumsha
Obrashchayas to the population, ok. 20. 11. 1918 Kolchak declared: Having accepted a cross of this power in exclusively difficult conditions of civil war and full frustration of the state life, I declare that I will not go neither on the way of reaction, nor on a disastrous way of party membership . Further the Supreme Governor proclaimed the purposes and tasks of the new power. The first, most actual task was called strengthening and increase of fighting capacity of army. The second, indissolubly from the first connected - victory over the Bolshevism . The third task which solution admitted possible only on condition of a victory, it was proclaimed revival and revival of the perishing state . All activity of the new power appeared aimed at that the temporary Supreme power of the Supreme Governor and Supreme Commander could transfer destiny of the state to hands of the people, having provided to it to arrange public administration voluntarily .
In the last days of life Kappel dictated the address to the Siberian peasants in which: For us from the West the Soviet troops which bear themselves communism, committees of poverty and persecution on trust of Jesus Christ move. Where the Soviet power is approved, there will be no labor country property, there in each village a small small group of idlers, having formed committees of the poor, will acquire the right to take away from everyone everything that to them will want. Bolsheviks reject God, and, having replaced God`s love with hatred, you will ruthlessly exterminate each other. Bolsheviks bear to you hatred precepts to Christ, new, red The Gospel published in Petrograd by communists in 1918. .