Tank. History of the birth and further development.
Contrary to spirits of the times, during 1 - oh World war mobile divisions of all contradictory armed forces for the purpose of the fastest movement used usually, horses - however, many continued to do it and at the beginning of World War II and which - where horses as the vehicle continues to be used and today. But already at that time the advantage which use of equipment gave was clear to much. The internal combustion engine provided to an overland military vehicle mobility, fire power and protection that became clear since first days of war. Soon the English Admiralty bought civil " cars; Lanchester “ and also “ Rolls - Royce “ and during 1915 the British army created the first bronechast. The suspension bracket of civil cars needed only small strengthening then cars were equipped with small booking, and also machine guns from above were mounted. These armored cars showed the great opportunities, especially in investigation and in roundabout attacks of enemy positions. Armored cars brilliantly proved - in World War I in Africa and in the Middle East.
But even they could not fight qualitatively against the strengthened and perfectly defended positions and therefore the difficult situation which developed on the Western front gave an impetus to creation of new fighting armored machinery. When the network of entrenchments a continuous strip lay between La - Mansh and Switzerland, almost all realized that the barbed wire and machine guns served as the end to use of horses in fights. The new form of mobile striking powers was necessary for new situation. Such forces and means which could help to find a way out of the created stalemate were required.
the Fighting vehicle which received the name the tank , allowed to break a hopeless situation. Well armor and supplied with the weapon, it with ease overcame trenches, thanks to the caterpillars typical for early cars covering the case - such as tank of Mk - 5. But the main thing - the tank could overcome with impunity counteraction of the opponent and it is rather easy to enter depth of his defense.
the Purpose was realized, and in fight on the Somme River in 1916 the tank showed the efficiency and sowed fear on the German soldiers. Early modifications of tanks were sometimes unreliable and were used only for support of infantry attacks. The real tactics did not do their use too effective. However, by the time of the first tank attack about Kambre in 1917 in modification of tanks improvements were made. The German attempt to make up for lost time (and to catch up with allies) led to production “ armor fighting " car; - the tank A - 7V was born. However, attempt failed, to the end of war only allies did and used tanks in enough. But experience of World War I appeared insufficiently to convince the military management that only the tank is capable to provide overweight in war. Attacks of the German fighting groups during approach in March, 1918. Showed considerable, than tanks, efficiency when overcoming the position deadlock. Nevertheless, sceptics could be convinced that the idea of a military armored vehicle is quite viable.
at the end of World War I Germans from allies in the field of armored machinery. Having hardly recovered from loss, Germany actively began researches in the real area, despite of the actual ban. Counter to conditions of the Versailles contract, between wars Germany strenuously was engaged in preparation of the armored machinery which changed former ideas of war. Business was not so much as fighting vehicles - for example - the heavy tank of France In - 1 completely surpassed the majority of the German tanks - and in their use. French (and also British) applied the armored machinery only to support of infantry, as well as in World War I. The German army then realized the advantage of mass tank formations. Fights of the first German tanks which big share was made on the basis of the Czech practices appropriated by Germans after annexation of Czechoslovakia in 1938 too a lot of things allowed to realize to allies. It was the big lesson in spite of the fact that it was necessary to pay dearly for it. Though the German tank divisions sustained very heavy losses even in early campaigns, realized all being at war parties that the future of tank war in larger, better by the armed and armored fighting vehicles. Complacency of the German Supreme command after victories in the West disappeared when on the Soviet front to the German tanks the first tank T - 34 met .
the Soviet armored troops appeared from chaos and confusion of October revolution. On July 4, 1920, during Civil war (1919 - 1921) the Red Army for the first time used tanks in fight. 2 - y the tank group participated in fight together with an armored train number by the 8 and fourteenth group of armored cars. Just been born Soviet tank troops consisted of the small number of the English tanks Mark - 5 both the Whippet and tanks of France “ FT " Renault;. These fighting vehicles were initially parked white by the western states for military aid for fight against Bolsheviks. Those could capture some of them and used against the former owners.
In Civil war the role of tanks was small for two opponents for the simple reason - them was very little. Objectively, British and French gave no more than 130 tanks, however armored cars they put much more. But tanks were slow, often broke, for them there was not enough fuel and spare parts. Therefore, they were not suitable as large-scale use in common with much more high-speed cavalry in mobile operations, standard for Civil war at all. Armored trains played more important role in comparison with tanks because of the mobility together with considerable fire power. Control of the railroads during Civil war usually was a decisive factor.
At the same time RKKA devoted much time and attention to the armored troops. And in November, 1917 Bolsheviks organized Temporary armored council which task was a control of the second All-Russian conference on armored cars. Conference was organized for the purpose of discussion of the questions connected with creation of armored troops Soviet state - va. In 1918 functions of these organizations were undertaken by the Revolutionary Council of War (Revolutionary Military Council) which took practical steps for creation of tank parts. The first tank troops were formed in May, 1920. Three " tanks were a part of each group; Mk V “ English production, six trucks and three motorcycles.
On the course of how were constructed of improvised materials or tanks of other modifications are captured, armored troops were reorganized into 3 main groups sootvetsvtenno with sizes of tanks. " tanks; Mark V “ made group of tanks of B type (big), " tanks; Whippet “ - group of tanks of S type (averages) and " tanks; FT " Renault; - group of tanks of M type (small). The similar organization was more connected with a problem of supply and ensuring command of tank parts, than with some ideas about a tactical role of tanks of various options. It should be noted that division of armored troops into groups agrees with the sizes and technical characteristics of tanks was in the Soviet Union a distinctive feature during the period between wars and during World War II, and had a direct bearing on fighting use of tanks.
On the end of Civil war the Red Army continued to show interest in tanks. Especially it belonged to creation of own production of tanks instead of the captured western cars. The commissioner L. Trotsky said that tank plants which will satisfy needs of the USSR have to be constructed. In reality in the nineteenth year the group of engineers led by N. Hrulev began creation of the tank of France “ FT " Renault; at just nationalized AMO plant (Automobile Moscow society). The decision to try to create the Reno FT " tank; it was accepted on the basis of the fact that it had the smaller size and from - for simplicity of a design. One tank was assembled.
Consider also that production of 14 tanks is exaggeration (in connection with a condition of the industry in the state after just complete war), assume that it were the updated and repaired FT Renault tanks, but not new fighting vehicles, but also - that " tanks; Russian " Renault; or KS - 1 were issued z - ohm “ Red Sormovo “ in Nizhny Novgorod; on AMO engines were made for them. All 15 models of a series which foundation laid “ Fighter for freedom of comrade Lenin “ were completely domestic cars, however their quality was insufficiently good.
Despite all failures, Russians continued to create the organizations which purpose was a development of both tanks, and ways of their use. In 1923 the Head department of war industry conducted the first systematic research of a design of tanks considering requirements of RKKA. In work use of tanks in World War I was analysed and conclusions on preparation of staff of tank parts are given. One more incentive to formation of tanks as type of military forces it was given in 1925 when the Technical bureau of studying of tanks is created. It also made the biggest contribution to restoration of industrial base and the organization of mass production in 1926 of the first Soviet tank called in MS - 1 and known as the tank T - 16/18.
The German tanks
in the years of World War I Germans actually could not make enough tanks and study the principles of their application in fight, and according to conditions of the Versailles contract of Germany forbade to make tanks that, however, did not prevent to create very effective tank troops. However against the French and British tanks tank troops of Wehrmacht became quite progressive phenomena as it is constructive, and in fights.
First of all in Wehrmacht refused division of tanks on application - on infantry and cruiser. The tanks reduced in big connections had to carry out various functions at need: both tanks of maintenance of infantry, and tanks of development and fixing of success. However full refusal from enough small tank parts, intended for close interaction with infantry it is also impossible to recognize successful. In Wehrmacht passed (similarly to RKKA) to division of tanks on easy, average and heavy. But if in the Soviet Union only a weight of the tank was such criterion, then in Wehrmacht tanks long time were subdivided on classes, both on weight, and on arms. Let`s tell, originally the tank T - IV was considered as a heavy fighting vehicle, proceeding from its arms - 75 - gun mm, - and was considered as that up to summer of the forty third.
Together with tanks in Wehrmacht started also mass production of self-propelled artillery (assault tools, SAU, fighters of the tanks, anti-tank SU) which was considered as a way of strengthening of infantry and tanks in the battlefield. At the same time till July of the forty third year assault tools, self-propelled infantry tools and fighters of tanks organizationally were a part of artillery, but not tank parts.
However, despite active preparation for military operations, production of armored equipment in Germany during 1934 - 1939 Was quite small. In any case, they could not be compared to production of tanks of all options in the Soviet Union where BT tanks more than 7000 were let out, and tanks T - 26 - more than 11000. The management of the Third Reich before war did not manage to mobilize economy for needs of military production fully.
Very much increased tank parts of Germany the Pz tanks captured in Czechoslovakia. Kpfw. 35(t) (LT - 35) and the Pz tanks made already by orders of Wehrmacht. Kpfw. 38(t) (LT - 38), possessing much more high fighting characteristics, than the most mass German tanks T - I and T - 2 (on the Soviet classification.
Even when World War II was well under way in the Third Reich not at once understood and started the beginning of release of military equipment. And it negatively affected completing to a pantservaffa, experiencing all war difficulties with an equipment.
We will note that, summer of the forty second year Germany managed more - to complete less with equipment only of 9 of 19 tank divisions which were at war on East front. Other tank divisions had big shortage of equipment. It should be noted, up to the end of World War II the leadership of Germany managed to support connections to a pantservaffa in a fighting state, and fascist tank troops kept an opportunity to drawing serious counterstrokes which delivered to armies of allies great difficulties.
The armored equipment of Germany which is created in an interval of 1934 - 1940 was generally distinguished by big reliability, simplicity and convenience of service and operation, ease of management. The equipment which was created in the years of war could not brag of such indicators any more. For example starting the " tank in production; Panther “ " tank; Tiger “ and “ Royal Tiger “ the existing haste and haste have an adverse effect on their reliability and TTH.
Feature of development of armored machinery was quantity of options in which it was created.
the Majority of the main fighting tanks since Great war had a set of options for performance of fighting tasks - special fire-throwing tanks, engineering or evacuation cars. For example, " tank; Centurion “ could bear a buldoser knife, a chain minoochistitelny drum, an arrow of the crane and the fashinoukladochny equipment, apart from other, smaller equipment. The most part of fighting vehicles since the period of war were to some extent equipped with the special equipment which allowed to move by swimming or to cross water barriers on a bottom, and it considerably broadened area of their application.
For example, during World War II the " tank was released; Sherman “ - it is repair - the recovery car for actions in “ water “ operations, the having opportunity to operate even on a bottom. The equipment was entirely tight, equipped with periscopes and devices for an opportunity to breathe. Use of these tanks was caused in fascists by shock as in the field of fight the most perfect military equipment of that time appeared. Other tanks then were equipped with pontoons. A number of tanks was designed especially for amfibiyny operations including the American DUKV conveyor, everywhere known as “ Dak “ (“ Duck “) . This car equally well moved and by land and on reservoirs, proved to be the magnificent vehicle in the English and American armies.
For the purpose of transportation of people or equipment where there were no roads the semi-track laying vehicles for the first time used on a large scale by Wehrmacht, and soon adopted and all others were used. Semi-track laying vehicles proved to be as fine means of movement and since then consist on arms in all armies of the world.
M - 3 Armies of the USA and the German Sd. Kfz - 251 steels ancestors of modern caterpillar armored troop-carriers - such as infantry fighting vehicle “ Bradley of M - 2 “. It should be noted, current developments for wheel cars - we will tell, system of effective regulation of pressure in tires - considerably reduced a gap in passability on roads and on off road terrain between track laying and wheel vehicles. For the reason on it is a lot of higher mobility and smaller operational expenses, similar wheel armored personnel carriers now threaten to force out from a battlefield track laying vehicles for transportation of infantry.
The most part of the armored combat vehicles of the twentieth century started in mass production kept all defects of prototypes and trial models. Despite it, some cars turned out quite successful that are directly - common nouns and are synonyms of the feats. “ Awkward “ Mk - 5, tearing “ prickle “ on the Western front of World War I; " tank; Royal Tiger “ in Ardennsky counterattack of the forty fourth year - also “ Abrams “ overcoming sand during the operation “ The Storm in the desert “ in 1991. On modern war of the weapon and armor there are several constant rules.
First of which says that tactical actions are capable to reduce defects of quality and quantity of the equipment - it was shown by Germany in the fortieth year, having broken British both other allied armies, and Israel in 60 - 70 - e years, conducting military operations against the bigger number of the Arab tanks.
However it happens not so often. Present tanks, for example, as “ Leklerk “ " tank; Abrams “ and “ Challenger “ demand from staff of bigger skill and much wider knowledge. Incompetence of badly trained crew on the old tank in military operations against such professionals having the best cars of the world was visually illustrated by war in the Persian Gulf in 1991. Armored divisions of Iraq were crushed by coalition forces almost without loss.
The second rule says: superiority in armor and arms takes place to be only on a small interval of time, right after release of the tank when he for the first time enters military operations and it can be the winner. Practice of East front of World War II shows that the armored machinery quickly enough becomes outdated when the parties in a pursuit for superiority one above another regularly improve the weapon and strengthen an armored protection.
Including perfect fighting vehicles should not work independently. The opponent will destroy very powerful tank if satellite machines do not give it continued support; if armored troop-carriers do not deliver army in a battle-ground and will not go to break together with tanks. In turn, armored personnel carriers cannot qualitatively work if do not provide them reliable protection, and reconnaissance vehicles do not investigate before the district. Offensive operation will go insufficiently quickly and uncertainly when stackers of bridges and fighting engineering vehicles are not able to provide the road for advance of tanks and the armored personnel carrier. The idea of mutual aid is vital for success of operation of armored connection.
Use of armored equipment does war by faster and, apparently, to more destructive. Identical problems which armored cars faced at the beginning of the development keep the value and now. The first tanks were successful only if they were used in a large number, on free space, with good rear support. The same rules work and now.
The Soviet army which leaned on big resources of the huge country could not win a victory over the Afghan Mujahideens mostly for the reason that the district and conditions prevented normal use of armored machinery. The same treats also war in Vietnam. Tanks are useful, but are not all-powerful.
Nevertheless, and now they play the same role which was carried out by the very first tanks - do war position, doing it maneuverable and turn from a bloody slaughter into art. It is probable how it is strange, this most even saving human lives.