Rus Articles Journal




Now it is accepted to allocate mythological types on the basis of possession with them of the most significant for ancient societies functions. Such functions were: legislative, voyenno - power, agrarian - cattle breeding, culturally - media even. In general, these functions in the conditions of ancient societies had pronounced male character because division according to professions existed first of all among men. The role of the woman was multifunctional and therefore, it would be logical to allocate as independent the function connected with female occupations.

The principle of functional typology is not new. According to the theory. Dyumezilya, Indo-European gods are grouped on magic, military and hozyaystveno - natural to functions (each of which corresponded to one of three Vedic groups of the population (varn) - to brahmen, kshatriya, vayshyam).

However the reality even during a Vedic era was much more difficult. In the real research the fact that agrarian (and in earlier time and hunting) activity was inseparably linked with magic representations is accepted to the obvious fact. Therefore, allocation of magic by Dyumezil in special function hardly legally. On the other hand, it is perfect irrespective of voyenno - power existed culturally - media even function.

Various groups of the population of a community really were responsible for performance of these roles and whose ideology was expressed by the embodiments of the corresponding mythological types. In all phenomenological variety of mythological images of pantheons of Barbarous Europe (more widely - an Indo-European pantheon) it is possible to isolate the invariant mythological types which are the structural center. Each of these mythological types possesses one of five functions allocated by the author.

So, legislative function God of the Clear Sky as he patronizes breeding collective and the military right possesses.

Voyenno - power function is characterized God Groma who is the spokesman of ideology of the breeding aristocracy among which priority interests military activity took the major place.

God of Terrestrial Forces esteemed by priests and farmers carries out agrarian - magic function.

The cultural Hero has culturally - media even function as he personifies the sacred imperial power (including its role of the intermediary between gods and people).

At last, the multifunctional female type of the Great Goddess, initially connects dual nebesno - the terrestrial nature.

The scheme of relationship between these types can be presented in the form of a ring which is formed by man`s characters, nearby with each other depending on codirectionality of the carried-out functions.

God Groma and God of the Clear Sky in a number of traditions tend to merge in a uniform image as both of them are connected with heavenly elements.

The same tendency is often observed also in relation to terrestrial gods - to God of Terrestrial Forces and the Cultural Hero. At the same time, the Cultural Hero as the character who is closely connected with the world of people, has common features and good luck the Clear Sky (and in some traditions it is considered his son), between them also often there is an intermediate type of twins.

Only God Groma and God of Terrestrial Forces are antagonists (the Cultural Hero also suffers from their conflict).

The only female deity which is mentally placed in the center of a ring plays a role of the posredstvuyushchy beginning among man`s images. Most often it the spouse Boga Grom and God of Terrestrial Forces, in a number of traditions the goddess consists in the marriage relations good luck of the Clear Sky. And more and more late female characters of mythologies of Barbarous Europe (and Indo-European mythologies in general) are derivatives from an image of the Great Goddess.

The century of the Neolithic in the Western and the Central Europe is characterized by matriarchy and a syncretic cult of the Great Goddess. Indo-Europeans, (formed, apparently, in the territory of Eastern Europe) during the formation already existed within patriarchy and esteemed God of the Clear Sky (the patron of men`s breeding collective as integrity).

During an era of great Indo-European campaigns (the beginning of a bronze age) God Groma was put in the forefront (the soldier`s embodiment - the aristocrat on the fighting chariot). The role of the Great Goddess gradually decreased, this type broke up to various less significant images. Then, already within Barbarous Europe, development happened in the different ways. At a number of the people (Celts, the western Balts) the priestly estate and highly respected to them Boga of Terrestrial Forces was of particular importance.

At germano - Scandinavians, the Scythian - Sarmatians, a dress coat - dakiyets and illiriyets, the western Slavs where barbarous tsars come to the power superiority belongs to the Cultural Hero. On this background there can be also a revival of honoring of God Grom (at east Balts and east Slavs).

A certain circle of plots also is connected with these main mythological types. It: removal of God of the Clear Sky from the predominating place in a pantheon; God Grom`s victory over a world dragon; falling of the Great Goddess; prosecution by God Groma Boga of Terrestrial Forces and Cultural Hero; victory of the Cultural Hero over a three-headed dragon and wolf etc. There are bases also to claim that the listed components of a pantheon and the related mythemes were an important source when forming key images in late religious systems: Zoroastrian, Hindu, Buddhist, Christian.