Rus Articles Journal

Slavs of Baltic. The lost cities and lands. Solar Estonia.

Russian toponymics of Baltic. V. I. EVDOKIMOV, edging. geogr. sciences

Solar Estonia

Tallinn. The city is this ancient, it is for the first time mentioned on the card of the great Arab geographer Abu Abdallakh of Muhammad ibn Muhammad al Idrisi. The card represents a silver dish weighing 91 kg which al Idrisi presented in gift to the king of Sicily Roger II in 1154. There on the place of Tallinn the city of Kolyvan is designated. And in the Russian chronicles are the city of Kolyvan, and nobody argues with the fact that the city was founded by Russians, but it is considered that they called it Kolyvanyyu allegedly in honor of the hero of the Estonian epos of Kalevipoega. Probably, here it is not important that phonetic not to make of Kalevipoega Kolyvani, also the fact that Russians call the city in honor of the hero of not epos is not important, and the fact that in honor of heroes of eposes to call settlements is important guessed only in the XX century (for example, in honor of the hero of the Kyrgyz epos Manas the airport of Bishkek is called). Earlier was on the contrary - the kind athlete Ilya Ivanovich was called the Resident of Murom on the city of Murom near which he was born.

In a basis an ancient praslavyansky root kolo-- a circle (rotation, near), but also and the sun. This root could be also in the name round in respect of constructions (the dwellings or sanctuaries connected with the sun). The same look - with a cone-shaped roof and an opening in the middle - the shepherd`s hut, widespread in the Carpathians, kolyba1 has. Hero of the Estonian epos here at anything: Kolyvan - the Russian name, and it was used till 18th century. The city since 1219 Danes, Germans, Swedes owned. Since 1710. it as a part of the Russian Empire already under the German name Revel - according to the local name of the coast. Since 1918 - Tallinn, from the Estonian Taani linna, i.e. Danish city. Who owned the city till 1219? Probably the one who based it and called, i.e. it - not the stranger Russian the city.

Tartu. Date of the basis - 1030. This year Yaroslav the Wise put fortress here and gave it the name on the Christian name - Georgy, i.e. Yuryev2. Also Yuryev Livonsky, unlike Yuryev Polsko`go and Yuryev of Povolsky was called (nowadays Yuryevets). Long time was the Russian city (the whole year was a deputy of the tsar Ivan the Terrible the prince Andrey Kurbsky here, exactly from here he also ran to Lithuania), Swedish, German, Polish, since 1704 already Derpt (the etymology is not clear) is returned in structure of Russia under the name of, in 1893 the old form - Yuryev was restored. Since 1918 - go - Tartu, the Estonian pronunciation of the name of Derpt. The erudite person will remember that before Tartu Derpt and who has to remember that it is the old Russian city of Yuryev was called?

But Tallinn and Tartu - the cities known, and here that it is to the country Paldiski located in the west of Estonia? Estonians cannot explain its names, for the Russian ear it sounds as foreign, the first that occurs - something German or Swedish, and the city - that Russian! In year of the end of Northern war, 1721 - y, Peter I visited on the Baltic coast the gulf Rogervik, estimated the place and enjoined to put port. The port was put and began to be called simply - the Baltic port. (Exactly here at the beginning of the 20th century the Russian underwater fleet was created.) Modifying this name after the own fashion, Estonians received Paltiski. In 1939 Russians returned here, renewed voyenno - sea base and began to call it already on Estonian manners, but slightly in own way - Paldiski. After war the name varied: Paldiski, Paldiski, Paltiski, modern - Paldiski did not settle yet. It is impossible to guess the Baltic port in Paldiski, it needs to be known and from where? (Against Paldiski two islands, Suur Pakri and Vyayke Pakri are located. Estonians translate them so - Big Pakri and Small Pakri. What is Pakri? Swedish, German or.?)

From where there was a name Estonia (Eesti)? Earlier used the name of Chud (Lake Chudskoye from here), in popular speech of all inhabitants Behave in a queer way how, however, all Finns, called Finns, - why Estonians? Germans (The Livonsky award, an award of Sword-bearers), that, ostzeysky (from the German name of the Baltic Sea - Ostsee, i.e. East sea) which long time owned these lands called them after the own fashion - Ostland, i.e. East country. The Russian officials who succeeded them said the name Ostland on the of manners, Estlyand, and added the Latin termination iya (on type France, Italy or Spain). Here - that substitution is also hidden! The matter is that names land have the double nature. In - the first, it is the countries called according to the characteristic of the district, for example, Iceland (The ice country), Greenland (The green country), the Netherlands (The low country). In - the second, the countries called on the people, their inhabiting, for example, Lapland (the country of falls, i.e. Sami), Deutschland (the country doychy, i.e. Germans), England (the country of angl, British). Estlyandiya, the name in the place, was transformed to the name on the people, namely: from Estlyandiya - East country in Estlyandiya - the country of est. On cards the name is nearly replaced with esta. It is curious that such reliable indicator as the Russian surnames on the people, of Estov or Estonov does not contain, and here of Chukhnin or Finns - at all not a rarity.

Certainly to claim that present Estonia is a Russian, and only the Russian land, will come to nobody to mind, but the fact that it is the historical and cultural world of Russia - the obvious fact