Whether much we know about “ nice “ past of Europe?Europeans considered Russia as the barbarous country at all times. And ourselves are quite often expressed about it in the same vein. I will not speak about nowadays, but it is possible to tell about confidence that up to the 19th century Russia, despite all shortcomings, was the most civilized of the European states.
Many with melancholy imagine old Europe with noble knights (ha - ha), ready for feats for the sake of great ladies (ho - ho), with beautiful palaces and gallant musketeers (well - well), with magnificent royal inclusion and fragrant gardens of Versailles. Many think: well why I was not born (was born) in those beautiful times? Why I should live these boring years when forgot about honor and beauty?
Believe - you were very lucky.
Till the 19th century the terrifying wildness reigned in Europe. Forget that showed you in movies and fenteziyny novels. The truth - it much less... hm... it is fragrant. And it belongs not only to the gloomy Middle Ages. In the sung Renaissance and the Renaissance essentially nothing changed.
By the way, to regret, but almost the Christian church is responsible for all negative sides of life in that Europe. Catholic, first of all.
The classical antiquity built hygienic procedures in one of the main pleasures, it is enough to remember the well-known Roman terms. To a Christianity victory only in one Rome more than one thousand baths worked. Christians first of all, having come to the power, closed all baths.
Of that time lyud treated washing of a body suspiciously: nakedness - a sin and it is cold - it is possible to catch a cold. (Actually - not absolutely so. “ Shift “ on nakedness occurred somewhere in 18 - 19 vv, but really did not wash - P. Krasnov). The hot bathtub is unreal - firewood cost very much, - Sacred Inquisition - and that hardly was enough for the main consumer, sometimes favourite burning had to be replaced with quartering, and later - a kolesovaniye.
Queen of Spain Isabella Kastilskaya (end of the 15th century) admitted that for all life washed only two times - at the birth and in the wedding day. The daughter of one of the French kings died from pediculosis. The father Kliment V perishes from dysentery, and the Father Kliment VII dies from itch hard (as well as the king Philip II). The duke Norfolk refused to wash from religious beliefs. His body became covered by abscesses. Then servants waited when his grace gets drunk dead-drunk, and hardly - hardly washed.
The Russian ambassadors at court of Louis XIV wrote that their majesty “ stinks like a wild animal “. Russians across all Europe were considered as perverts that those went to a bath of times a month - ugly often.
If in the XV-XVI centuries rich citizens washed at least once in half a year, in the XVII-XVIII centuries they in general ceased to take a bath. However, sometimes it was necessary to use it - but only in the medical purposes. Carefully prepared for procedure and the day before gave an enema. The French king Ludovic XIV washed only two times in life - and that on the advice of doctors. Washing brought the monarch into such horror that he promised to accept water procedures ever.
In those times of troubles care of a body was considered as a sin. Christian preachers urged to go literally to a rvanye and never to wash as thus it was possible to reach spiritual clarification. It was impossible to wash also because it was so possible to wash away from itself holy water which touched at a baptism. As a result people did not wash for years or did not know water in general. Dirt and louses were considered as special signs of sanctity. Monks and conventuals set other Christians the corresponding example of service to the Lord. (Not everything but only some awards - P. Krasnov)
At purity was watched with disgust. Louses were called “ God`s pearls “ also considered as a sanctity sign. Saints, both man`s, and a female, usually were proud of the fact that water never touched their legs unless they had to ford the rivers. (Too not everything but only some awards - P. Krasnov)
People so weaned from water procedures that to doctor F. E. Bilts in the popular textbook of medicine of the end XIX (!) centuries it was necessary to persuade the people to wash. “ There are people who, to tell the truth, do not venture to bathe in the river or in a bathtub because since the childhood never entered water. This fear is groundless, - Bilts in the book " wrote; New natural treatment “ - After the fifth or sixth bathtub it is possible to get used to it... “. Very few people trusted the doctor...
Spirits - the important European invention - were born as reaction to lack of baths. The initial problem of the well-known French perfumery was one - to mask a terrible stench years of a dirty body sharp and resistant spirits.
The king - the Sun, having woken up one morning in bad mood (and it was its usual state in the mornings because, as we know, Louis XIV had sleeplessness from - for bugs), it enjoined over all court to be smothered. It is about an edikt of Louis XIV in which it was said that at visit of the yard it is necessary not to feel sorry for a strong perfume that their aroma muffled a stench from bodies and clothes.
Originally these “ odorous mixes “ were quite natural. Ladies of the European Middle Ages, knowing about exciting action of a natural smell of a body, greased with the juice as spirits, skin sites behind ears and on a neck to draw attention of desired object.
With arrival of Christianity future generations of Europeans forgot about toilets with washout on one and a half thousand years, having turned facing night vases. The role of the forgotten sewerage was carried out by flutes on streets where fetid streams of slops streamed. The people who forgot civilizations about the antique benefits celebrated need now where it is necessary. For example, on a front staircase of the palace or the lock. The French Royal Court periodically moved from the lock to the lock from - for the fact that in old there was literally nothing to breathe. Chamber-pots stood under beds days and the whole nights.
After French king Louis IX (13th century) it was poured by shit from a window, it was authorized to residents of Paris to delete household waste through a window, only three times previously having shouted: “ Take care! “ Approximately in the 17th century for protection of the heads against excrements wide-brimmed hats were thought up.
Initially the curtsey aimed to clean only the trashed smelly hat far away from a sensitive nose of the lady.
In Louvre, the palace of the French kings, there was no toilet. Were emptied in the yard, on ladders, on balconies. At “ to need “ guests, court and kings or squatted on a wide window sill at an open window, or brought to them “ night vases “ which contents then poured out at back doors of the palace.
The same was created also in Versailles, for example during Louis XIV at whom life is well-known thanks to memoirs of the duke de Saint Simona. Court ladies of the Palace of Versailles, directly in the middle of conversation (and sometimes even during a mass in a chapel or a cathedral), got up and easy so, in a corner, celebrated small (and not really) need.
The king - the Sun, as well as all other kings, allowed court to use any corners of Versailles and other locks as toilets. Walls of locks were equipped with heavy portieres, in corridors deaf niches became. But whether it was simpler to equip some toilets in the yard or just to run in park? No, it even came to nobody to mind because guarded Tradition... diarrhea. Ruthless, relentless, capable to overtake unawares anyone and anywhere. At the corresponding quality of medieval food the diarrhea was permanent. The same reason is traced in fashion of those years on men`s trousers - the drawers consisting of one vertical ribbons in several layers. The Parisian fashion on big wide skirts, obviously, is caused by the same reasons. Though skirts were used as well with other purpose - to hide under them a doggie which was urged to protect Great Ladies from fleas.
Naturally, devout people preferred to defecate only with the God`s help - the Hungarian historian Ishtvan Rat - Veg in “ Comedies of the book “ gives types of prayers from the prayer book under the name: “ Immodest wishes of soul, God-fearing and ready to repentance, for every day and in different cases “ which is among “ The Prayer at departure of needs of nature “.
The medieval cities of Europe which did not have the sewerage but had a fortification and the defensive ditch filled with water. It role “ sewerages “ also carried out. Shit was dumped from walls in a ditch. In France heaps of shit behind city walls expanded up to such height that walls had to be built on as it happened in the same Paris - the heap expanded so that shit began to roll over back and dangerously it seemed - suddenly still the enemy will get into the city, having got on a wall on a heap of excrement.
Streets rolled in dirt and shit so that in an impassability of roads there was no opportunity on them to pass. Then, it agrees to the chronicles which reached us, in many German cities stilts, " appeared; spring " footwear; the citizen without which it was simply impossible to move on streets.
Here is how, according to the European archeologists, the real French knight at a boundary of the XIV-XV vv looked: average growth of this medieval “ heartbreaker “ seldom exceeded one meter sixty (with small) centimeters (the population then in general was undersized). Unshaven and dirty face of it “ handsome “ it was disfigured by smallpox (it then in Europe practically all were ill). Under a knightly helmet, in the felted dirty hair of the aristocrat, and pleated his clothes in a set pottered about louses and fleas.
From the knight`s mouth so strongly smelled that for modern ladies would be awful test not only to kiss it, but even to stand nearby (alas, then nobody brushed teeth). And medieval knights ate everything, washing down all this with sour beer and having a snack on garlic - for disinfection.
Besides, during the next campaign the knight for days was chained in armor which he at all the desire could not remove without assistance. Procedure of putting on and removal of armor for time took about an hour, and sometimes longer. Certainly, the noble knight celebrated all the need... directly in armor. (It not always was so - upon transition usually carried chain armors, continuous armor were usually dressed before fight - too in them it was heavy. Item. Krasnov) Some historians were surprised with
why soldiers Sallakh - hell - Dyne so easily found Christian camp. The answer came soon - on a smell.
If at the beginning of the Middle Ages in Europe one of the main food were acorns which were eaten not only commoners, but also the nobility, then subsequently (those rare years when there was no hunger) the table happened more various. Fashionable and expensive spices were used not only for demonstration of wealth, they also blocked the smell exhaled by meat and other products.
In Spain in the Middle Ages of the woman that louses were not got, often rubbed hair with garlic.
To look languid - pale, ladies drank vinegar. Doggies, except work as live blokholovka, one more way assissted to ladies` beauty: in the Middle Ages dog urine decoloured hair.
Syphilis of the XVII-XVIII centuries became the fashion-maker. Gezer wrote that from - for syphilis all vegetation on the head and a face disappeared. And here gentlemen to show to ladies that they are quite safe and suffer nothing of that kind, began to grow the long hair and moustaches. Well, and those to whom it for any reasons was impossible, thought up wigs which at rather large number of syphilitics in the upper class quickly became fashionable both in Europe and in North America. Sokratovsky bald heads of wise men stopped being in honor up to now. (This exaggeration of Gezer, head hair shaved not to breed louses and fleas - P. Krasnov) the bred rats carried to
Thanks to extermination of cats by Christians across all Europe a plague flea why a floor - Europe died. Spontaneously there was a new and so necessary profession of the rat catcher in those conditions. The power of these people over rats was explained precisely with this devil and therefore the church and inquisition at each opportunity dealt shortly with rat catchers, promoting thus further extinction of the flock for hunger and plague.
Methods of fight against fleas were passive, such as sticks - chesalochka. The nobility struggles with insects on the - during Louis XIV`s lunches at Versailles and Louvre there is a special page for catching of fleas of the king. Wealthy ladies, not to part “ zoo “ wear silk undershirts, believing that the louse will not catch silk because it is slippery. So there was a silk underwear, to silk of a flea and louse really do not stick.
Troubadours in love brought together from themselves fleas and replaced to the lady that blood mixed up in a flea.
The beds representing the frames on fine-molded legs surrounded with a low lattice and surely with a canopy in the Middle Ages get great value. So widespread canopies served quite utilitarian purpose - that bugs and other nice insects from a ceiling did not pour.
It is considered that the mahogany furniture became so popular because on it bugs were not visible. (The crushed bugs - P. Krasnov)
to Feed with itself louses, as well as bugs, was considered “ Christian feat “. Saint Foma`s followers, even the least devoted, were ready to extol his dirt and louses whom he carried on himself. To look for louses the friend on the friend (precisely as monkeys - ethological roots it is available) - meant to state the arrangement.
Medieval louses even actively participated in policy - in the city of Gurdenburge (Sweden) the ordinary louse (Pediculus) was an active participant of elections of the mayor. People with broad beards could be applicants for a high post at that time only. Elections happened as follows. Candidates for mayors sat down around a table and spread on it the beards. Then specially appointed person threw on the middle of a table a louse. In what beard the insect crept was considered as the elected mayor.
The neglect hygiene cost very much to Europe: in the 14th century from plague (“ black death “) France lost a third of the population, and England and Italy - to a half.
Medical methods of assistance at that time were primitive and cruel. Especially in surgery. For example, to amputate an extremity, in quality “ anesthetic “ the heavy wooden hammer, " was used; kiyanka “ which blow in the head led to loss of consciousness of the patient, with other unpredictable consequences. Wounds cauterized red-hot iron, or watered with abrupt boiled water or the boiling pitch. It was lucky that who has only hemorrhoids. In the Middle Ages he was treated cauterization by the heated iron. It means - be hit the fiery probe in a bum - and it is free. It is healthy.
Syphilis usually treated mercury that, by itself, could not lead to favorable consequences.
Except enemas and mercury the main universal method which treated everyone was bloodletting. Diseases were considered sent by a devil and were subject to exile - “ the evil has to come to light “. Monks - " stood at the origins of a bloody belief; otvoritel of " blood;. Bled all - for treatment as means of fight against sexual desire, and in general without cause - according to a calendar. “ Monks felt like experts in art of doctoring and rightfully made recommendations “. The main problem was in the most vicious logic of such treatment - if improvement at the patient did not come, then the conclusion was drawn only one - blood let out too little. Also let out more and more while the patient did not bleed to death. Shelterlowering as favourite method of treatment of all diseases, carried away probably lives not less, than plague.
There was in medieval Europe also a surgery. Even if the surgeon learned to cut quickly - and to it they and aspired, remembering Hippocrates: “ Hurting there has to be in them shortest time, and it will be when section is carried out " soon; - from - for lack of anesthesia even the masterly equipment of the surgeon helped out that only in rare instances. In Ancient Egypt attempts of anesthesia became in the V-III millennia BC. Anesthesia in Ancient Greece and Rome, in Ancient China and India was carried out with use of tinctures of a mandrake, belladonna, opium, etc., in the XV-XIII centuries BC alcohol was for the first time applied to this purpose. But in Christian Europe forgot about all this.
Widely extend in the medicine Middle Ages from corpses and the ground bones. Garmann provides also the recipe “ divine " water; called so for the wonderful properties: the corpse of the person differing during lifetime in kind health, but the dead violent death undertakes entirely; meat, bones and interiors are cut on small pieces; everything mixes up and by means of distillation turns into liquid. (Somehow time Austrians destroyed several thousands of Turkish prisoners and made of them medicines - P. Krasnov)
Deliberate neglect to death and contempt for mortal life was shown in such phenomenon as fashion on human skulls. The historian Rat - Veg was surprised to such custom, widespread in Europe still in 18 - ohm a century:
“ It is difficult to present that the human skull once was a fashion subject. The abnormal fashion was born in Paris in 1751. Women of quality established a skull on a dressing table, decorated it with multi-colored tapes, established in it the burning candle and from time to time plunged into reverential contemplation “. But there is nothing to be surprised here - at such relation to human remains deep roots. Christians spread the millennium a cult of worship of relics. It is known that the first Christians lived in catacombs in an environment of corpses.
The church achieved that the people in Europe still in 17 - ohm sacredly believed a century that the skulls reduced to powder and bones of fingers are very useful to health. From the burned bones of happy spouses or passionate lovers prepared exciting love drink.
Expression “ cover from human skin “ will cause associations with crimes of the German nazis rather. Nevertheless prototypes of it of lamp shades and wallets from skin there is quite a lot of. So, for example, it is enough European books bound in human skin in libraries. The books or parchment which are wrapped up in human skin appeared in the Middle Ages when the tanning of human skin became wide to practice (and preservation of other parts of a body). These early books did not reach us though there are some historical messages concerning the Bible XIII - oho a century and the text of Decretals (A Catholic ecclesiastical law) written on human skin.
Among other documents bound in human skin - the copy of Human rights and several copies of the French Constitution of 1793
the Great inquisitor of Spain Tomas de Torkvemada (1420 - 1498) who widely became famous for the sacred fight against heretics became peculiar “ person Inkvizitsii “ along with Kramer and Shprenger. Torkvemada with truly Christian philanthrophy burned on fires of 10 220 people. Much less another - how many the human material " is known; enemies of the people “ it was used more rationally. Burning alive emotionally covers from us far bigger quantity “ socially useful “ sentences formed in Spain “ economic inquisition “. For example, by the same Torkvemada to exile on galleys it was sentenced 97 371 persons. By galleys these heretics had to wash away guilt before the Lord. Thomas Torkvemada was a confessor of the infanta Isabella Kastilskaya (that who was proud of the fact that she washed two times in life).
In the relation “ true “ enemies of Church (that is, for example, those who refused to admit the guilt or dared not “ to put “ the family, relatives and friends) Inquisition was irreconcilable - only a fire (Not only, but nevertheless, there were enough fires - P. Krasnov). Other heretics always had a choice: fast death on fire (then still fast - burning on crude firewood Christians will think up later) or galleys. The reference to galleys actually was the same death penalty only postponed - the majority sentenced to lifelong penal servitude did not live even up to the termination of the second year of imprisonment.