Features of game activity at mentally retarded children ofGame has to be the leading activity, obesp6echivayushchey a zone of the next development, making developing impact on folding of psychological shape of the mentally retarded child.
It is necessary to distinguish from a set of the reasons which are slowing down independent, consecutive formation of game at the mentally retarded child, first of all, main - an underdevelopment of integrative activity of a cerebral cortex, leading to delay in terms of mastering static functions, the speech, emotionally - business communication with about adult an entrance of approximate and subject activity. The so-called deprivation arising especially often when the mentally retarded child stays at prepreschool age in establishment of the closed type has pernicious effect on formation of game and lack of necessary pedagogical conditions for development of the child. Being deprived of necessary inflow fresh emotional impression the preschool child - the oligophrenic person gains an impression only about a narrow circle of people, objects; his life proceeds in limited monotonous circumstances. It images the impoverished and sometimes distorted image of world around accumulates on the organic defect which is available for it.
The small mentally retarded children coming to special preschool institutions, as a rule, are not able to play at all, they monotonously manipulate toys is not dependent on their functional purpose. So the child can is absolutely equally long to knock a cube, a duck, the machine.
In this case the relation to a doll which is usually perceived as well as other toys is especially remarkable. The doll does not cause adequate joyful emotions and is not perceived as the deputy of the person. In relation to toys - animals the mentally retarded preschool child also does not cause the interested emotional relation. Its actions with them remind manipulations with cubes and machines. It is important to note that such children who like to try a toy " also occur among not trained, mentally retarded preschool children; on taste “. They try otgryzt a piece from a color cube, to lick a nested doll. Such actions with toys are generally characteristic, for the children suffering from deep intellectual violation, however in some cases they are caused just not by ability to work with toys, lack of experience and use according to a functional purpose.
So-called procedural actions when the child continuously repeats the same game process also occur at considerable part of mentally retarded children on a row with manipulations: takes off and dresses clothes on a doll, builds and destroys construction from cubes, gets and puts into place ware.
Distinctive feature of games of untrained mentally retarded preschool children is existence of so-called inadequate actions. Such actions are allowed by logic, a functional purpose of a toy, they cannot be confused to use of objects at all - deputies who are often observed in game of the normal child. The ordinary preschool child willingly uses a stick instead of a spoon, a cube instead of soap etc. Such actions are caused by requirements of game and speaks about the high level of its development. But just such actions with use of objects - deputies never occur at mentally retarded preschool children at their receipt in special preschool institutions.
It is noticed that in the course of game oligophrenic persons act with toys silently, only occasionally publishing separate emotional exclamations and pronouncing words, some toys designating names and action. The untrained mentally retarded child is quickly sated with toys. Duration of its actions usually does not exceed fifteen minutes. It testifies to lack of original interest in toys which, as a rule, excited by novelty of a toy and in the course of a manipulation quickly dies away.
Without special training game at mentally retarded cannot take conducting the place and therefore, to make impact on mental development. Game is not capable to serve in such look as means of correction and compensation of defects of development of the abnormal child. To the section “ Game “ not slucheno, the central place in the program of education and training mentally retarded is allocated. Thereby paramount value of this activity for enrichment of children`s development, correction and compensation of various defects in mentality of the abnormal child, preparation for training for school is emphasized.
It is known that game activity of the child is very many-sided, just as also games are various. For all that predominating value it is taken away among them syuzhetno - to role-playing games. The type of games personifies the most significant and essential lines of game as activity. Considering its special importance for children`s development, the program places particular emphasis on stage-by-stage formation at the mentally retarded child of the put mechanism syuzhetno - role-playing game.
Before the teacher - the speech pathologist sets a task of gradual introduction mentally retarded to the world of game, training in its various game receptions, use of various means of communication with peers. In order that the mentally retarded child had a desire to play in the place with children, he has to be prepared.
Except syuzhetno - a role-playing game mentally retarded are trained in didactic and outdoor games.
Considering need of children for the movement, it is possible to apply fragments of outdoor games also widely. Thus, section “ Game “ includes three directions: training syuzhetno - to role-playing games, mobile and didactic. Classes in the first direction are given by the speech pathologist and the tutor, and in two others - in the basic (on special occupations) to tutors.