What is homosexuality - defect or option of norm?“ Pyotr Tchaikovsky, Freddie Mercury, Elton John, Boris Moiseyev … All of you still want to send the child to music school? “
Negative views of homosexuality are widespread in our society - in the modern world homosexuality is acceptable far not everywhere. However it exists - and this fact is indisputable. What everything began with and why it occurs?
Ancient Greece is considered the Golden Age of same-sex love. All gods of the Greek Olympus (except for the god of war Ares and god of an underground kingdom the Aida) loved boys. And loveful Heracles was fond of both women, and young men. Great philosophers of antiquity - Socrates and Platon were also homosexuals, and Platon saw in same-sex love first of all an exchange of cultural wealth, in Ancient Greek society only communication with the young men who reached 21 years was considered normal.
Here is how Platon explains an origin of same-sex love: “ Originally on the earth, except men and women, there lived bisexual beings - androgens, but then gods cut all people in half so everyone is doomed to look for now the former half because “ love is called thirst of integrity and aspiration to it “. At the same time the men representing a half of a former androgen are eager for women, and women of an androgenic origin are greedy to men. The women representing a half of the former woman are not really located to men, they are attracted by other women. “ But attracts the men representing a half of the former man to all man`s: already in the childhood, being segments of a male being, they love men, and they like to lie and embrace men. These are the best of boys and of young men because they are by nature the most courageous... In mature years only such men address the state activity. Having grown up, they love boys, and they have no natural tendency to a child-bearing and marriage; to that and another they are forced by custom, and they quite would be content with cohabitation with each other without wives “.
And maybe, homosexuality was means of decrease in birth rate and fight against an overpopulation, still Aristotle wrote that the kritsky legislator “ for separation of women from men that did not give birth to many children, entered cohabitation of men to men “.
It is interesting to notice that beauty of a naked male and female body is widely presented in an Ancient Greek sculpture while in the Roman sculpture all nakedness is covered. And if in Athens same-sex sex was the privilege of free people, then in Rome the slaves and prostitutes standing out of official society, but for the freedman were its lawful objects only, for example, sex reckoned with the former owner as a voluntary moral duty.
However for the mighty of this world there was nothing forbidden, - from twelve tsezary which biographies were made by Svetony, no communications with men were had only by two. Sexual practice of imperial Rome caused general degradation of morals and decomposition of society. Strengthening of the ascetic morals focused on self-checking and sexual abstention was reaction to it.
And what was created in the Middle Ages in Sacred Russia? - Here what is written about this time by the historian S. M. Solovyov: “ Neither in the east, nor in the West, did not look as easily, as in Russia, at this mean, unnatural sin " Anywhere;.
Almost all foreign travelers and diplomats who visited Russia in the XV-XVII centuries (Gerberstein, Oleary, Marzheret, Collins, etc.) noted a wide circulation of sodomy in all sectors of society and surprisingly tolerant, to the European measures of that time, the attitude towards him. The English poet George Terbervill who visited Moscow as a part of diplomatic mission in 1568 was struck with an open homosexuality of the Russian peasants stronger, than Ivan the Terrible`s executions.
Openly homosexual life was led also by some members of an imperial surname. In particular, Nicholas II`s uncle, the Grand duke Sergey Aleksandrovich openly patronized beautiful aide-de-camps and even founded in the capital the closed club such. When it appointed Moscow the general - the governor, in the city made jokes that still Moscow stood on seven hills, and now has to stand on one hillock (Russian “ hillock “ to conformably French bougre - the sodomite). The recorded this joke in the memoirs the Minister of Foreign Affairs count Vladimir Lamzdorf himself belonged to the same company, the tsar sometimes for fun called it “ madam “.
Representatives of the intellectuals did not suffer persecution for sexual orientation also. Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky (1840 - 1893) homosexuality which was divided by his younger brother Modest was “ family “. The school of jurisprudence in which the composer studied was famous for similar traditions, his pupils even sang the comic anthem that sex with companions is much more pleasant, than with women.
At the beginning of the 20th century the same-sex love in circles of art elite became even more visible. For many, of course, the same-sex love was only fashionable intellectual hobby, game for which the art bohemia is greedy.
October revolution interrupted this development of homosexual culture in Russia. Bolsheviks hated any sexuality which did not give in to the state control and had no reproductive value.
Thus, having only fragmentary tracked some stages of history connected with same-sex love it is possible to draw a conclusion - it existed always. Why? What it is a perversion? Sin? Illness? … or norm option?
The science deals many years with a problem of emergence of homosexuality. Many hypotheses are discussed. They vary from endocrine violations during the embryonic period when the brain defines itself as man`s or female under the influence of testosterone male sex hormone, to genetic disorders or purely psychological reasons. Any of them is not proved. The opinion shared by most of sexologists that for emergence of homosexuality not any one and only reason, but a complex various, in details still not until the end of the known factors is necessary seems to the most probable. The following scientific provisions are considered as recognized (on materials of the sexological encyclopedia):
1. Homosexuality is not an illness and therefore does not need treatment. It is impossible neither to prevent it, nor to cure. Any prevention or therapy is pointless. All attempts in this direction were doubtful and, eventually senseless.
2. Homosexuality - equal and equivalent option of human sexuality, one of many types of sexual behavior and partnership.
3. Nobody can define the sexual orientation in advance. Thereby all moral estimates of homosexuality disappear.
4. Homosexuality is not reduced only to sex. It covers same-sex relationships, love between men or between women. High human aspirations and values are connected with it.
In our country very high level of a homophobia till today remains. The All-Russian Center of Studying of Public Opinion (ARCSPO) carried out the representative express - poll of 1600 Russians. Among other questions was such:
“ People differently treat homosexuals and lesbians. As you personally think, homosexuality, generally it... “ Five versions of answers were distributed so (as a percentage):
an illness or result of a mental trauma - 33. 1
dissoluteness, an addiction - 35. 1
the sexual orientation having equal with usual the right for existence - 18. 3
a sign of special endowments, talent - 0. 5
I find it difficult to answer - 12. 9
And what will be told by you?