How training can kill your intelligence and abilities? We often think ofof stereotypes. We got used to think that the summer is heat and the sun though experience prompts that it not always so. We say that the winter comes to an end in February and we draw flowers on March cards as a sign of the coming spring though skiers usually still spend the whole of March on a ski track. We are sure that training always promotes that we become cleverer, is more bright, is more capable. But all of us, and in particular school teachers and teachers of higher educational institutions, perfectly know how over time “ excellent students “ turn in “ horoshist “ and “ horoshist “ in “ mediocre pupils “.
Now - there are a little facts. But you do not hurry to put article aside, thinking that what in it it is told about, does not concern you - only because in several subsequent paragraphs it will be a question of testing of school students. So, results of supervision.
The comparative research of quality of the general education of TIMSS (Trends in Mathematics and Science Study) which is carried out by the International Association according to educational achievements of IEA (International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achivements) in Russia is carried out by specialists of the Appraisal center of quality of education of ISMO of Russian joint stock company together with the Ministry of Education of the Russian Federation. According to an initial plan the research TIMSS is carried out each 4 years that allows to trace of change in mathematical and natural-science education which occur upon transition from initial to the main school. same set of pupils as in 4 years pupils of graduation classes of elementary school become pupils of the 8th class is examined, that is it is possible to look how there is a development.
In the summary record it is told: “ The surveyed set of pupils of 4 classes in 2003 showed the results on mathematics exceeding average international point on 32 points, and in 4 years results of the same surveyed set of pupils which in 2007 appeared in the 8th class, on the international scale on mathematics exceeded average international point on 12 points, i.e. upon transition of the same set of children from elementary school in the main relative decrease in results of pupils on mathematics was recorded (on 20 points). These facts demand the additional analysis. “ In other words, there is a degradation of school students, but heads and men of science from education cannot explain this phenomenon.
It is obvious that in an education system there is also no existing decision for change of a situation. Here results of other research. The international program for an assessment of educational achievements of pupils of PISA (Programme for International Student Assessment) is carried out by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development of OECD (OECD - Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development). A main objective of the research PISA is the assessment of educational achievements of pupils 15 - summer age. A key question of research - “ Whether pupils 15 - summer age, got the general compulsory education, the knowledge and abilities necessary for them for of full functioning in society Possess ? “. Research is directed not to determination of level of development of school programs, and to an assessment of ability of pupils to apply the knowledge and abilities gained at school in life situations .
On literacy of reading Russians gained in 2000 462 points, in 2003 - 442, in 2006 - m - 440. There are no summary data for 2009 yet. In this case ability to understand written was checked, - so-called functional literacy : whether the person can and how well, having obtained some information, to estimate its necessity, correctness and to apply it in the life. How you think if the person does not understand written whether he will be able to understand the textbook on physics, instructions to the computer, a label on drugs?
Why the age in 15 years is chosen? Rapid growth of intelligence of the child is observed from the moment of the birth till 12 years. The intelligence of the person, as a rule, reaches the maximum by 15 years though there are also specific features. So, at children with a high intelligence intellectual development stops later, at children with low intelligence - much earlier. There is a fading further - the I.Q., the more slowly process, the lower - the quicker and more probably decrease in this ability is higher.
Would be a mistake to consider that the problem of education concerns only school students and students. How it happens what training leads to degradation? Let`s consider on an example. Present: you are happy, you in a pocket have some sum of money and you are going to buy the brand new computer. You are not able to work at it, were never trained in it earlier, but are sure that you will be able to learn them to use. Not gods burn pots! You bring purchase to the house and begin to read instructions and the managements. In these thick books and thin brochures there are many different clever words. All of them are such acquaintances aurally, but for some reason the attention at us begins to dissipate, the head begins to ache a bit, there is a wish to rub eyes and in general something rages in a stomach - whether it is time to eat? You begin to realize that you understand nothing in these texts. You are already not so sure and bright, as before purchase of this miracle of equipment.
Studying of instructions - in fact educational process. The teacher - the person who has to be able to train, allow difficulty of educational process. What is advised by the teacher if it is difficult for us to understand material? Standard recipe, to which not one hundred years: “ study more diligently “ “ be more attentive “ “ concentrate “ … But you try! And such discrepancy begins to upset you. You begin to believe that something not so with you that you are not capable and that to you it is not let know it because at you “ other mentality “.
Or other example. Imagine, for example, the accountant. He quite well copes with the duties. But here the legislation changes moreover and the administration decides to buy the new accounting software and it is sent to courses. He tries to deal with laws and instructions, but not everything is up to the end clear to him. It comes back to work, but now does more slowly and not so surely as earlier. And now, recently still quite confident in the forces, he feels that the soil is beaten out from it from - under legs.
He feels silly and incapable. Tax audit finds at it mistakes, confirming his own, recently appeared at it unflattering opinion on itself. Also it has problems with the program from time to time and he understands that he is not capable to perform the work well. There passes a little more time, changes in laws and rules appear again, innovations appear again, again in understanding of these innovations there are gaps, and here the person makes the decision that he is not fit for anything and that it is better for it to give up this work and to be engaged in something in another.
When the trained expert cannot work in the specialty or school students run from lessons or begin to have disgust for school - occurs same: and those, and other want to be far away from what they do not understand . It is difficult. What a difference a flakonchik with paint: pressed a spray - paint left a mark on a wall. “ Hurrah! I can! I am clever! “ - with pleasure the young man begins to think of himself. Right there is a self-confidence, good mood and it readily begins to apply the abilities … on walls of school and at an entrance of the house. It not always pleases the director and residents.
Approximately according to the same scheme the bad behavior, hooliganism, teenage crime, sex in free from lessons (or instead of lessons) time appears at school... Adults have problems: depressions, nervous breakdowns and other troubles.
What happens when there is no understanding (there are problems)? And school (or high school) the teacher, and the head, wishing to achieve results, trying to increase the level of need of the ward, begin to use in fact the same method: pressure. The teacher puts the two and threatens with assignment, the head - reduces payments and threatens with dismissal. Reactions to such influence can be the most different: happens that this method works and the person becomes reasonable, but in most cases - depression, a dissatisfaction with and life, and at times business reaches revolt - hidden or open. Would you like to be near what or whom you do not understand? Usually the person tries to leave such place or the person and to be there and with those as who are clear. And if there is no opportunity to leave this place, then he arranges revolt.
But it is possible not to bring to such extremes. How? The answer is so simple and obvious that it ceased to be noticed. It is necessary to restore understanding , and the problem will disappear. Understanding of subjects, professional terms and tasks, and in a consequence and the final result - the life (all vital processes). As people exchange ideas trained and communicate) by means of words, the first that should be understood well is of the word . It is very important that also you, and your interlocutor or the reader used the same definition of the word, and also owned understanding of values of each of words which hear or read.
Usual reading dictionary entries not always happens to explanations enough. With an ulterior motive expression appeared in the people: “ I look in the book, I see … “ well, further you know. How to be in this case? How not to be up against a blank wall? To use technology of training and, in particular, technology of clearing of words.
We are happy when we are understood. Be capable to understand and be witnesses. Be happy!
employee of Autonomous Non-Commercial Organization
“ Applied Formation of the CIS “