Why on May 14 in a national calendar Eremey Zapryagalnik (Yaremnik) is called?to answer the question posed, it is necessary to make a reservation at once that in it there are two parties therefore it is the most reasonable to argue one after another. So, we will begin with the first.
By the first option, Eremey is the Russian transcription of Jeremiah. So the story should be begun from far away. - long ago, even for six centuries B.C., in the city of Anafofa in a family of the priest Helkiya the son who became subsequently to one of four great antiquated prophets - Jeremiah was born Davny. With prophetical acts he was acquainted by the Lord early enough, on the 15th year of life.
Life reports that Jeremiah convicted the whole 23 years Jews for recreancy from true God and idolatry, threatened and cried, predicting it disasters and devastating war for what was exposed from the tribespeople who were not listening to it to all sneers, desecration and threats.
Nevertheless, having put on itself first wooden, and later - at all an iron yoke, he went in crowded places, urging the people to think again. For it according to the decision of elders it was thrown into a ditch with fetid ooze. Being taken from there according to the petition of one of imperial court, Avdemelekh, the prophet continued to broadcast about a sin and punishment, and is as a result put in a dungeon.
Nebuchadnezzar who executed a terrible prophecy who plundered and destroyed Jerusalem, beat the people and part took him prisoner, got out Jeremiah of an imprisonment and gave a freedom of choice of the place of residence. But the prophet preferred to remain on ruins, grieving about happened, but was taken violently away by Jews to Egypt.
Here he at last was lucky: Egyptians surrounded Jeremiah with honor as it managed to destroy a prayer “ crocodiles and other reptiles filling those places “. Alas, it lasted until the prophet did not foretell that the tsar Babylon will devastate the earth Egyptian and will destroy the Jews who lodged in it.
It was not pleasant to the last, taking into account the precedent which was already available earlier at all, and they killed Jeremiah. Simple calculation shows that there were to it for that time 44 years. However, before death he managed as reports the legend, to take the Ark of the Covenant with tables and to hide it in one of mountain caves Navaf, and also as it is approved in the Gospel of Matthew, to predict Judas`s treachery.
Other version proceeds from this, the name Eremey occurs from god Yarila who was connected with the solar heat impregnating the earth (but did not represent the Sun), and its attribute is the fallichesky symbol. From there are concepts “ summer “ “ it is bright “ etc. According to this point of view, initially the word sounded as Yarilya - Yarimey. And still it is possible to hear as old people call the owner of this name: “ Yarema, come here “.
Why Zapryagalnik or Yaremnik?
After a hristianization of Russia our ancestors, fulfilling orthodox obligations, in day on May 14 on new style, and on old - the first, prayed to the Saint prophet Jeremiah though in it day of memory of several Saints. Jeremiah to them attracted more than others because carried a yoke (from here and Yaremnik), and this date fell or on the beginning (most often), or for the sowing campaign heat - depending on the region and weather conditions when the peasant or put a horse to a plow / plow, or was put itself (therefore Zapryagalnik). Spoke: “ On Eremey and the lazy plow in the field leaves “; “ On Eremey on early dew go for crops “.
But and in more ancient times there were for centuries kept customs, connected not only with synoptic supervision and conclusions, but also with an economic calendar. Therefore quite widespread phenomenon was: having prayed to the Saint prophet Jeremiah for simplification of hard country work, to go in the field for commission of traditional rituals after which only and sowing began.
For example to say: “ Eremey Zapryagalnik, raise a setev (i.e. bast baskets with seeds) “. Entering the field, to pray on three parts of the world, except northern, throwing into everyone on a handful of a zhit and giving bows to the ground. At last, symbolical copulation with Mother - the crude earth directly in the field was the most archaic ceremony.
For this purpose in the opened soil the opening into which the appropriate authority plunged was dug out the suitable size, and the process which was coming to the end with an orgasm was made. After that the earth was considered as the pregnant woman, and on it it was impossible to jump, children for such attempts were strictly punished.
This custom in some places remained up to the 20th century. And in the XX century which - where, on reliable attestations of eyewitnesses, other way is thought up: collecting in a certain capacity of donations in the form of semen from participants of a collective farm and its pouring out in an arable land.
And there was still here such amusing belief: in day of a zasev and nothing to lend to nobody - from money to a piece of bread or a uniform kernel - in order to avoid a crop failure. So if you are superstitious and are going to be engaged in sowing works today, then refrain from crediting in any form - by denomination, monetary, natural, the national calendar in vain will not advise. And if is not present - that simply smile.