As Order of Alexander Nevsky “ worried “ all Russian awards?the Order of Alexander Nevsky became the only award which was handed also at the time of the Russian Empire, and at Provisional government, and in days of the Soviet power and today it is included in prize system of the Russian Federation.
In prize system of Russia the Order of St. Alexander Nevsky appeared in the 18th century. It was conceived by Peter I as an award for services in battle for officers and generals. There was it after relics of the Saint prince Alexander Yaroslavich were transferred to St. Petersburg according to the decision of the emperor and day of its honoring is determined on August 30. Date is chosen not incidentally, this day the Nishtadsky peace with Sweden which finished long-term Northern war was made. Under the leadership of Petr the description of an award and options of its signs - a cross, a star and a tape were prepared.
The death prevented Peter I to found officially an award and to carry out the first rewardings. This mission was undertaken by his spouse, the empress Ekaterina. The Order of St. Alexander Nevsky was officially entered into system of the Russian awards on May 21 (on June 1 on N of page) 1725. At the same time the empress expanded a circle of awarded, having begun to hand a prestigious award and to civil officials of a high rank. The first rewardings were carried out in connection with a wedding of the daughter empress tsarevna Anna Petrovna and Karl - Friedrich, the duke Shlezvig - Golstein - Gottorpsky.
Finally high status of an award was defined on August 30, 1725 when the empress assigned the Order of St. Alexander Nevsky to herself, awarded with it the king of Denmark Frederik IV, the king of Poland Augustus II and 19 more representatives of the highest nobility. At this time the award took the third place in a seniority of the Russian awards after Saint Andrew the First-Called and Saint Ekaterina`s awards. Later it “ passed " forward; also awards of the first degree of Saint Georgy and sacred Vladimir.
The Order of St. Alexander Nevsky had no degrees. Awarded with it the people who had ranks it is not lower than 4 classes Tables of ranks (the general - the major, the valid councilor of state), but most of winners by the time of receiving an award consisted in more high ranks. For all the time of existence of an award (before cancellation of 1917, its after October events) about 3 thousand rewardings were made. The Order of Alexander Nevsky was rare and very honorary reward.
After February revolution of 1917 the award was kept in system of the Russian awards, but underwent minor changes - was deprived of imperial crowns over eagles.
The Order of Alexander Nevsky returned to prize system of the country in days of the Great Patriotic War (on July 29, 1942) . It is natural that it had absolutely other statute and appearance, than at the pre-revolutionary predecessor. It is curious that the decree on establishment of an award appeared next day after the well-known Order No. 227 according to which blocking detachments were entered into armies and penal parts were created. VGK rate, along with toughening of requirements to troops, expanded opportunities for encouragement of the caused a stir officers.
The Order of Alexander Nevsky became younger among “ of a military leader “ awards (the Orders of Suvorov and Kutuzova were founded on the same day), and, with it officers from the commander of a platoon to the commander of a division could be awarded. According to veterans, the Order of Alexander Nevsky was the most beautiful of fighting awards. It was extremely highly appreciated in the officer environment as its delivery emphasized not only personal courage, but also undoubted commander talent of the winner. The statute of an award accurately defined for what services in battle it is possible to receive a high award:
“ For manifestation, according to a fighting task, initiatives of the choice of the successful moment for sudden, courageous and prompt attack on the enemy and drawing to it a great defeat with small losses for the troops;
For performance of a fighting task, the persistent and accurate organization of interaction of types of military forces and destruction completely or the most part of the operating superior forces of the opponent;
For command of artillery division or the part which promptly suppressed the artillery of the enemy surpassing in force, or destroyed the weapon emplacements of the opponent impeding progress of our parts, or destroyed group of EARTH-AND-TIMBER EMPLACEMENTS and the PILLBOX, or persistently reflected attack of large group of tanks, having caused it great losses;
For command of tank division or the part which successfully executed combat operation, caused a big loss to manpower and equipment of the opponent and completely kept the equipment;
For command of aviadivision or part, persistently and successfully made a number of fighting departures, caused a cruel loss to manpower and equipment of the opponent and without loss come back on the base;
For prompt actions and an initiative of frustration or destruction of engineering constructions of the opponent and ensuring development of success in an offensive rush of our parts;
For the systematic organization of uninterrupted various communication and timely elimination of its damages which provided success of large combat operations of troops;
For skillful and prompt performance of the landing operation with the smallest losses for our troops which caused big defeat to the opponent and provided success of the general fighting task “.
Pay attention, almost in each point not only drawing a big loss to the opponent, but also the maximum preservation at the same time of the staff and military equipment is emphasized.
The first rewarding with the Order of Alexander Nevsky happened on November 5, 1942 when it awarded the commander of a battalion of marines senior lieutenant Ruban I. N. and the commander of a detached rifle battalion captain Tsybulin S. P. who was at war near Stalingrad.
All the Order of Alexander Nevsky awarded more than 40 thousand officers, including several women. As the statute did not provide restrictions for repeated rewardings of one person, about 50 - ti officers received an award twice, and lieutenant colonels Borisenko I. G. and the Nevsky N. L. - three times. Except the military personnel of Red Army the award was received by about 70 officers and generals of the foreign armies participating in war with fascism.
After disintegration of the Soviet Union the Order of Alexander Nevsky was kept in prize system of modern Russia. It belongs to so-called “ to the sleeping awards “ rewarding with which is provided only in war time with the external enemy. On the present the award has no statute and the description, it is supposed that they will be founded if, God forbid, the award is demanded for rewarding of the military personnel who caused a stir at protection of the Fatherland. By the way, precedent already is, after military events in the Caucasus in August, 2008 from “ the sleeping state “ awards of St. George were removed.