What customs are connected with the Russian ethnic cuisine (part 1)? Each people have- the life, the customs, holidays, songs and fairy tales. Distinctions between the people form national culture. Each people have favourite dishes and table customs inherited from ancestors. The ethnic cuisine depends on traditional tenor of life and on what products were most available to people during its formation. Also Russian cuisine is not an exception.
To begin to speak about Russian cuisine it is possible since the IX-X centuries when Slavs learned to bake bread of rye flour on kvass ferments, as put a basis to development of the Russian culinary art.
At this initial stage of the Russian cookery was created the basis of the Russian table remaining invariable so far. It is the well-known black rye bread, traditional soups and porridges, pies and other numerous products from yeast dough, pancakes, and also drinks - honey, kvass and vodka. Besides, in connection with acceptance during this period of Christianity, were issued a table fast and a table ferial.
The first records of the Russian recipes were left to us by monks - chroniclers. Monks lived own work and ate from fruits of this work. They cultivated the land, caught fish, collected herbs, held apiaries, cooked food and baked bread. Monastic records were included later not only into cookbooks, but also into medical reference books and herbalists. The role of monasteries in preservation of cuisine of ancient Russia was huge.
But church influence on Russian cuisine was not limited to monastic walls. In olden days posts observed everything, young and old.
] Russian cuisine during the Lent
] during the Lent under the church charter is forbidden the use in food of products of an animal origin - meat, milk, eggs, fish. Besides, Monday through Friday if these days any holiday is not necessary, also vegetable oil is not used. Fish is allowed only two times - for the Lady Day (on April 7) and on the Palm Sunday. On the Lazarus Saturday caviar is allowed. On other Saturdays and Sundays of a post, Great Chetvertok (Holy Thursday) and in days of some especially honored Saints (for example, forty Sevastiysky martyrs - on March 22, the prelate Gregory Dialogos - on March 25) is allowed vegetable oil. The first day of a post - Pure Monday - and penultimate - Great heels (Good Friday) - recommend to carry out in general without food.
Quite often fast table is identified with vegetarian. However it is incorrect as the products making a basis of vegetarian dishes did not enter a diet of a fast table (for example, oil, milk, sour cream, cheeses, eggs). At the same time for preparation of festive fast dishes fish - boiled, smoked, salty or dried, but not fried as for frying oil is used was used. Also crayfish, crabs, shrimps, lobsters, oysters entered a fast table.
Were excluded, however, some products of a phytogenesis, such as carrots, beet, red pepper, tomatoes on the ground that at them allegedly there is blood with which identified their juice.
Recipes of many fast dishes remained since the Christianization of Kievan Rus` and have the Byzantine, Greek origin. Ancient Russia did not write down culinary recipes, there were no recipe-books, recipes were transferred from mother to the daughter, from home to home, from generation to generation.
of Changes in recipes and technology of preparation was almost not, and in fast days of different centuries ate almost same dishes that prepared since the time of the Saint prince Vladimir equal to the apostles. Only new vegetables were added: until the end of the 17th century in Russia only the cabbage, garlic, onions, cucumbers, a radish and beet were widespread. by
From first courses Russian cabbage soup, fish soup, rassolniks were extended. To hot Russian cabbage soup served pies with porridges stuffings. Pies did pryazheny, that is fried in oil (when it was allowed to be done), and hearth, baked. In fast not fish days pies were concerned sgriba, poppy, peas, juice, turnip, cabbage and different berries. In fast fish days pies with vsevozmozhneyshy breeds of fishes were concerned. Whitefishes pies, by snetka, with one fish milts or with vizigy, on hempy, poppy or nut oil were especially loved. For such stuffing small iskroshenny fish mixed up with porridge or with saratsinsky millet - rice. Fir-tree porridge oat or buckwheat, millet cereal was seldom.