Rus Articles Journal

Berda ́ sh (polsk. berdysz) - a cold weapon in the form of the axe


the Stupid part of a blade intended for a nasazhivaniye on a staff as well as at axes, is called a butt, the edge opposite to an edge, - tupyyom, and the end delayed from top to bottom - a kositsa. The staff is attached to iron by means of a butt, a kositsa, nails - rivets and thongs. Ratovishche drive in a butt, nail up - rivets through wells in a butt. Such wells from 3 to 7 usually became. Kositsa it was attached to a staff by two - three nails and wound in several rows with a thin thong or a rope. Sometimes on each turn the thong was beaten by nails. On the lower end of a ratovishch the iron tip (subcurrent) for an emphasis of a berdysh to the earth was got both when firing from guns (arquebuses), and during a ceremonial system. Sometimes in a cloth of a berdysh did a set of small openings into which sometimes inserted rings. Berdysha of horse Sagittariuses and dragoons became the smaller sizes in comparison with infantry and had two iron rings on a staff for a running belt. [to govern]

the History

Weapon of a Similar Design appeared in Europe early enough. In Russia berdysh appear in the first half of the 15th century, and later gain general distribution as the weapon of streletsky troops and city protection. Here it occupied a niche of the European halberd, but carried out a bit different functions. Peasants were recommended to store the weapon among which there were also berdysh on a case of war. Regiments of a new system quite often armed berdysham as this weapon was more habitual to people. Cloths of Russians of berdyshy differed in the various form changing over time. Early berdysh of the 16th century had one edge on the top end of a staff and toporovidny berdysh. The edge was rather small - 20-50 cm. Later, in the 17th century, the top ends began to otkovyvat often in two shorter edges. Also edge length increased to 60-80 cm. Cloths ceremonial berdyshy covered with a carved pattern - or simple points and schematic leaves, or in difficult drawings with the image of the unicorns struggling with dragons, various chimeras and flowers. It was the weapon up to 170 centimeters long and weighing about 3 kilograms. For comparison - weight streletsky berdyshy was about 1,5 kg.

Since the end of the 15th century of a berdysha were applied in Sweden. Were in use and in other countries. In Poland as the infantry weapon they were entered in 1674 and soon forced out sabers. They differed from Moscow in smaller weight and about 120 cm long therefore when firing from them rose on a knee. At the beginning of the 18th century they went out of use.

of the Technician of application

Working methods berdyshy, despite different fastening of a tip to a handle, were close to receptions for a gleviya or a nagamaka, but were more various. It was suitable for the wide cutting blows, and also could be used effectively for protection. Sharp sharpening allowed to strike the cutting blows. Based on a weapon design, historians believe that it could be used also for drawing the pricking blows by the sharp end. Jan Pasek wrote about application by Sagittariuses berdyshy in events of 1660 on a crossing polsko - the Lithuanian cavalry through the river Polish shlyakhtich:

Cruel slaughter in this crowd came here, and berdysh were most awful; through a quarter of hour however did not leave them from this mixture, and cut them so, as one did not leave as remained in a clean floor, spoke, they were about 100. From ours the one who fell that lay and who remained - that suffered from wounds; under me the horse bay a bullet was wounded in a breast, cut berdyshy a forehead, and also a knee. Still it would serve me if not this knee wound as I was successful to horses in army. [

As berdysh as the mass weapon, were widely applied by the simple people, the case at the Troitsk siege was recorded:

One of such, certain podatny the person from the village of Molokov, the peasant called by Vanity great growth and very strong at which laughed always from - for his inabilities in fight, told: Let I will die today, but I will be glorified by all! He held the weapon In hand, berdysh. Also the Lord of that strengthened Vanity, and gave him fearlessness and bravery; and it forced orthodox Christians to stop flight, speaking: Let`s not be frightened, brothers, enemies Bozhiikh, but we will become with the weapon firmly against them! And sec. berdyshy the of enemies on both sides, holding Alexander Lisovsky`s regiment; and nobody to it could protivostat. It quickly as a lynx, jumped also many then armed and in armor struck. Many strong soldiers got up against it to revenge for a shame, and cruelly stepped on it. Vanity of sec. on both sides; without giving it, pedestrian people, having stopped flight, became stronger behind posts.