Rus Articles Journal

History of Veliky Novgorod

Official date of birth of Veliky Novgorod, it is considered to be 859 - its first mention in " belongs exactly by this time; Stories of temporary years . According to it Novgorod or Holmgard as his ancient Scandinavians called, stands at the origins of Volkhov twelve centuries. An arrangement on crossing of waterways from the Varangian in Greeks - on the South of Byzantium, and from the Baltic Sea across Volzhsky - on the Arab East, defined its difficult and very interesting destiny. Becoming the powerful republican center, part of the State Moscow, large torgovo - the craft center, military fortress, this amazing city burned in the most terrifying fires, mourned the inhabitants who died under imperial sabers, fell under bombs of planes of Wehrmacht, but every time rose from ruins again and disclosed vicinities of a priilmenye ringing bell fight. As aboriginals of places at a source of Volkhov consider the Finn - the ugr which left us some names of the Novgorod rivers and lakes (on one of versions gidrony Ilmen occurs from the Finn - Ugrian llmeri - sky, air space, heavenly forces ) . In the 6th century not numerous tribes " moved here; Krivichi and already in the 8th century, during Slavic settling - the European plain, to coast Ilmen - lakes the tribe " came East; it is nice . As a result of their interaction with others, the tribes living on the numerous rivers of a priilmenye, to the middle of the 9th century it developed powerful Union of Ilmen Slavs in which now many historians see the primary source of formation of the Russian statehood. By this time Severo - the West of Russia turns into the territory of active trade between Europe, the East and Byzantium; the central point on a northern site of these trade routes, including on the well-known way from the Varangian in Greeks there is a source of Volkhov, namely the strengthened settlement on the right river bank, known as Ryurikovo the ancient settlement now. Here in 862 Slavs and Ugra - Finns invited the Scandinavian prince Rurik - the ancestor of the imperial dynasty ruling Russia until the end of the 16th century. From here active settling of coast of Volkhov as a result of which appeared " began; Novjgorod . However, here opinions of chroniclers differ: one of sources says that it existed even before Rurik`s arrival. The new city on Volkhov from the very beginning was not similar to other Russian cities. For example it is known that Novgorodians practically did not carry bast shoes (at excavation only one bast shoes fell on one thousand units of leather footwear). Most of residents of Novgorod understood to the diploma ; certificates obvious to that - the well-known birchbark manuscripts which archeologists find to this day. Moreover, at the time of Kievan Rus` the city was a peculiar princely school: here accumulated experience and exclusively eldest sons of the grand Kiev duke were trained in a management skill. For example, to the introduction on the Kiev throne both Vladimir Svyatoslavich christening Russia, and his son Yaroslav the Wise, and Vladimir Yaroslavovich who constructed the main symbol of Novgorod in 1045 - the stone temple of Sacred Sofia reigned in Novgorod (earlier it was wooden and had 13 domes, instead of present to six). Later Novgorod began to employ princes on work on the contract generally for military operations. If the prince did not arrange employers it could be expelled quietly. With the advent of Ryurik dynasty strengthening of Novgorod which gradually acquires the status of the center of Kievan Rus`, the second for value, begins. An arrangement on a joint of a way from the Varangian in Greeks with Volzhsky promotes development of crafts, trade and culture. Participation of Novgorodians in princely aggressive campaigns expands borders of the Novgorod lands, and by the beginning of the 12th century they already include part of Baltic and Karelia, the southern Finland, the southern coast of Ladoga, Obonezhye, the coast of Northern Dvina and extensive spaces of the European North. All this promotes that in 1136 the city becomes the center of the huge Novgorod feudal republic operated Vechem (a prototype of modern democratic system).

Slava Novgoroda grows and already it is mentioned in chronicles of 1169 as Great . Novgorodians call it Mister or Sovereign Veliky Novgorod. Commercial relations of Veliky Novgorod extend from Flanders and the Hanseatic cities to the Ugra earth, from Scandinavia to Astrakhan and Constantinople. Settlements of the Novgorod merchants appear on the island of Gotland, in the Swedish Sigguna and the Estonian Lindanis (Tallinn). In turn merchants from Gotland in the middle of the 12th century develop in Novgorod the Gothic trade yards, and one more - German, merchants of the Hanseatic union open. During blossoming of the republic (XIV - the first half of the 15th century) the population of the city makes about 30 thousand persons, and it is divided into 5 independently coping urban areas or the ends: Nerevsky, Lyudin (Goncharsky), Zagorodsky, Slavensky and Carpenter`s. Besides trade and crafts in the city the culture and writing actively develops. Not injured by Tatar - the Mongolian invasion, ancient Novgorod was the center of annals, a knigopisaniye, distribution of literacy and played a big role in development of the Russian literature and art.