Olga Podolskaya. Rules of the first psychological assistanceAuthor of article: Olga Podolskaya.
Today again explosions in the subway were b>. Therefore in today`s news it is about physically injured: psychologically injured there - there is so much how many passengers of the subway participated in incident. However, why only passengers? Drivers and other workers of the subway too from stressful reaction are not insured. Fortunately, people can even give help in such terrible situation to themselves and relatives. How?
In the accident site:
of 1. Whenever possible keeping calm, it is necessary to leave the place of a source of a trauma, helping with it as well other victim
It is important: to nonspecialists should not try to give
first aid by another on the accident site. To be convinced that there is no danger any more they technically cannot - and in a case when it is, the delay will lead to the fact that it is necessary to rescue also all who were late for assistance. Here you know as? - as on the plane warn: in case of depressurization of a cabin put on an oxygen mask yourself in the beginning, and only then - the child. If is closer to accidents terrestrial - in the beginning remove that from the accident site of together with all whom you can take without loss of speed of removal.
2. Having left a zone of direct danger, it is necessary to give first aid first of all to himself, then close
It is important:
first that it is required - to estimate a situation. In the presence of physical damages first of all it is necessary to give pre-medical help. In case of serious damages - to call an ambulance, to apply bandages, etc. Generally, to provide all that help which is required besides psychological in order that victims returned to the safe world - home, for work, etc. as
2a. If the person close to you is in a stupor (the stopped look, an immovability, etc.) - do not release its one. Obimite also go home together with him, telling about the plans words: “ Now we will sit down in a taxi, we will go home, I will be with you " all the time; etc.
2b. If in a stupor the stranger is - you can help it, having just approached closer, having taken by hand, having begun to talk: “ Who are you? Whether I something can help you? “ It is possible to pat the person shoulder, to cover with something warm if the shiver began, to induce to talk. It is not necessary to be afraid of tears: expression of emotional affect it is much better, than a stupor.
of the House:
1. Sharp emotional shock , is normal - from 3 to 5 hours from the moment of incident
Are time of improbable mental tension. All mental reserves of the personality will be mobilized, and the person needs to do something, whenever possible - tselessobrazny: to get out of the accident site, to be examined by the doctor, to report for work the matter, to calm relatives, etc.
it is necessary to take care of the following stage At this time, to ensure future possibility of rest, an otreagirovaniye and restoration of forces. To try violently “ to exhaust “ the person it is not necessary to have a rest at this stage: by what here rest when the body shivers as a wire energized, heart jumps out of a breast and the head is turned for nervousness. It is better to merge the risen energy in activity, psychological assistance will be in prompting it the direction of this activity.
2. Psychophysiological demobilization , from 1 to 3 days from the moment of incident
Is time of melancholy and confusion. The feeling of own powerlessness and panic rolls, there is a question “ For what to me it? Why I? “ nausea and vomiting, loss of appetite, weight in the head and a zabyvaniye of elementary things is possible. There is a wish to be hammered into a mink and there to sit, without leaning out.
At this stage will be - to provide with the best help to the person rest. To undertake all household tasks, to organize to it a possibility of rest, to be near, but not to demand from it any interaction. It is Still desirable - to hold tactile contact by a hand, more often and longer to embrace, it is possible without any words. If the victim - the child, then it is necessary to be ready to some regress: those abilities which at it were already rather acquired can be gone somewhere, more often and more child will ask on handles, and it is desirable to provide it this opportunity.
3. The permission stage , from 3 to 12 days from the moment of incident
Usually at this stage seems to the person that it returned to norm: it comes back to work, vigorous activity, etc. However during this period the lowered emotional background, increased fatigue, restriction of contacts with people around, decrease in emotsinalny coloring of the speech and slowness of movements still remains. Often there are dreadful dreams in which the victim anew endures all horror of an event. By the end of this period there is a desire to be uttered, directed usually to those relatives who did not witness accident.
At this stage it is necessary to talk to the victim about what occurred as occurred and what feelings he had when it occurred. It is possible to listen to a story several times, it is desirable to embrace, iron on the head and to feel sympathy in other tactile ways, to induce to emotional reactions, but not to calm. To be angry, cry and sob in this situation - it is normal: the similar otreagirovaniye is the natural biological mechanism of a sovladaniye with the psychoinjuring situation. It is not necessary to speak “ Do not cry, calm down! “ - better something " type; Yes, I represent how to you it was heavy, and your tears are quite justified “.
4. The restoration stage , begins approximately with 12 - go day after incident
of People really comes back to norm on objective supervision. Emotional coloring of the speech and mimic reactions comes back, dreams stop being dreadful, ability to rejoice and joke comes back, interpersonal communication becomes more active, the condition of a body is stabilized: unusual headaches stop, full-fledged appetite comes back, there is no nausea, the fatigue and other asthenic manifestations decreases.
Unfortunately if restoration for any reasons happened not completely, then at this moment the psychosomatic frustration connected with zheludochno - an intestinal path, heart etc. begin to be shown. and neurotic reation - phobias, persuasive actions, a depression, etc. Therefore within a month after accident it is necessary to watch closely especially health and if within a month the condition of the victim did not return to normal - to address experts.