What is communication of the third generation - 3G - a network?As often we ask a question why the communication quality often does not suit us in this or that form? Why GPRS works so slowly? How to phone to the operator not to sit with phone on half an hour and to listen what buttons should be pressed? There was it when it is necessary to send the e-mail by means of the terminal, and where to take settings to connect to the operator`s server, unclear? What versions of the solution of these problems can be? Specifics of work of GSM - operators force them to place as the bigger quantity of base stations in order that people had no problems with communication is possible and, respectively, could use additional services, such as MMS, GPRS, EDGE.
For GSM - operators the problem is that signal level too low and therefore it is necessary to establish on some tens base stations in one district of the city - in the form of hexagons or honeycombs as they are called still. At such configuration in a cover zone there should not be sites on which the signal can be absent. It would seem, nothing difficult: to establish a tower, to start the transmitter, and it is ready. If not one “ but “ - the number of subscribers which constantly grows and as a result loads already " even more; tired “ base stations.
We live in a century of technologies where mobile communication is very profitable business. The countries of Europe and Asia, America, Japan understood it long ago. Therefore they began to introduce more “ advanced “ the technologies allowing to serve a huge number of subscribers at qualitatively new level. All this is possible at introduction of technologies of communication of the third generation (3G - Third generation).
What mobile networks it is actually possible to call 3G networks?
3G represents the standard designation of several standards of mobile communication having a number of distinctive signs. In particular, mobile networks of the third generation provide a possibility of simultaneous transfer voice (usual phone call) and not voice data (loading of files, an exchange of e-mail or messages of IM). The important role in 3G - services is taken away high-speed the Internet - to access, video telephony and mobile TV, however, two last services did not reach the expected popularity yet.
The standard 3G was developed by the International union of telecommunication (International Telecommunication Union, ITU) and carries the name IMT - 2000 (International Mobile Telecommunications 2000). Under this abbreviation five standards are integrated, and only some of them provide a full covering in various ranges therefore actually only they can be considered as full 3G - decisions.
The greatest development of a network of the third generation was gained in Japan and South Korea. The first commercial 3G - the FOMA network was started on October 1, 2001 in Japan by the operator NTT DoCoMo on the basis of the standard W - CDMA (Wideband Code Division Multiple Access). And literally in four years already 40% of the population of this country used communication services of the third generation.
As for Europe, here development 3G was slowed down by generally high license assignments. In total the European operators spent about 130 million euros for acquisition of licenses. The first network of the third generation on the old continent was started on March 3, 2003 in Great Britain by the operator Hutchison. It is constructed on the basis of the same standard W - CDMA and received the short and clear name - “ 3 “. There are two principles by which the operator is classified as 3G or not 3G. The principle first - the standard in which services of mobile communication are provided. The principle second - the speed of data transmission which is reached in a network.
Officially mobile network of the third generation is a set of the systems and services constructed on the basis of any of the six-technologies described in the document International Mobile Telecommunications Programme (IMT - 2000) offered by the International union of telecommunications (International Telecommunication Union (ITU)). Technologies are following: W - CDMA, CDMA2000, CDMA2001, TD - CDMA/TD - SCDMA, UWC - 136 (it is EDGE) and the DECT. However not everyone they provides the necessary radius of a covering, and the UWC standard - 136 (EDGE) is supported by most of domestic operators and belongs to so-called networks 2,5 G.
Therefore as 3G networks only the following options can be used: W - CDMA (Wideband Code Division Multiple Access; the European option - UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunication System)), CDMA2000 1X (450, 800, 850, 1700, 1900 MHz) and the Chinese option 3G - TD - CDMA/TD - SCDMA. By the way, CDMA2000 1X is the first stage with which evolution of the CDMA2000 network begins.
But there is also other sign by which are also classified 3G - operators - data transmission speed: for subscribers with high mobility (to 120 km/h) - not less than 144 kbps, for subscribers with low mobility (to 3 km/h) - 384 kbps, for motionless objects at short distances - 2,048 Mbps. If to classify by compliance to standards, then around the world there are over 160 operators of the third generation.
And what is received as a result by ordinary users of mobile communication? Their choice is limited to phones for work at a frequency of 900, 1800, 1900 MHz and in certain cases 2100 MHz. People choose that operator who offers better or in general uncontested communication in the concrete district. Of course, for the people living in big cities, this problem already stopped being actual, but our country is not only million-plus cities, but also thousands of small settlements in which it is necessary to look for heights, to climb up a tree that on the display of expensive means of communication there were strips informing on the level of the accepted signal.
Whether much know that one basic CDMA - the station covers with a network a site in 50 kilometers? How you will react if to you suggest to use services of data transmission with a speed up to 2,4 megabits a second, at the same time with an opportunity to use either the mobile terminal, or PCMCIA - the card which should be inserted only into the laptop that in any point of the city to be in touch? And if the laptop supports voice calls, it can use as the cellular device …
Anyway, now, at least, we own idea of communication of the third generation which here - here will reach also us. So we will be not just mobile, and mobile on - modern!