How to preserve sight of the child?Author: Svetlana Stasevich
the Civilization gave to our eyes big loadings. From 3-5 years children begin to read. Then study at school, at institute...
The reasons of disorders of sight at children and teenagers are very various. They can be a bacterial, virus or fungal origin, and also the diseases caused by allergic, toxic, chemical and physical factors. Diseases a century, the plaintive device, a conjunctiva, a cornea, skler, a vascular path, a retina and an optic nerve are most often observed.
The serious reason of visual frustration is made by injuries of eyes. The statistics notes that the number of injuries is very big, and boys suffer more often than girls. Mechanical damages mucous a century, an eyeball, a cornea, iridescent crystalline lenses are most frequent.
Quite often children have burns of eyes. As a rule, it is result of impact on an eyeball of chemicals, high temperature, radiant energy. Chemical burns are caused by alkalis, acids and other aggressive substances. Alkalis are most dangerous - they dissolve proteins of fabrics and in 2-3 minutes after a burn deeply get into an eye: the cornea grows turbid, partially dies off, the damaged fabric is torn away that leads to a blindness.
Here it is necessary to remember that liquid ammonia, lime, silicate glue, aniline dyes are alkalis and it is necessary to handle with them very with care.
Traumatism is very often possible and during sports occupations if the technology of performance of this or that physical exercise is broken.
So short informative review of the importance of eyes as organ of vision, information on pathological processes allows to undertake measures of prevention of a number of diseases since the childhood.
All biological processes proceeding in an organism of the child are subordinated to a certain rhythm. First of all it is necessary to accustom children to the correct day regimen representing reasonable alternation of different types of activity and rest. A daily routine in preschool institution, lesson schedule at school it is expedient to make so that behind lessons with visual tension sports or musical classes were given. During dynamic breaks it is necessary to use actively this time for rest, meal, completion of a lack of the movement. Shortening of a break between occupations does not allow to remove visual and general exhaustion. For removal of visual exhaustion in the middle of each occupation or a lesson it is necessary to carry out fizkultminutka for eyes.
With age the lack of the movement is more and more felt. Try to do not less than 10 thousand various movements a day. Here it is necessary to include and daily 10-20 - minute morning exercises, active games on dynamic changes, day and evening walks - all this totally has to make not less than three hours.
Preservation of efficiency of pupils is promoted also by sequence in preparation of homeworks. It is undesirable to begin with the most difficult subject as it demands more time. If to begin with an easy subject, then the mood nervous and other systems of an organism will facilitate the subsequent digestion of difficult material. It is the best of all to finish preparation of homework with a favourite subject - it will give pleasure.
Reading fiction on load of sight and the central nervous system is close to similar when performing homeworks. Therefore the child should not undertake reading even the most interesting book immediately on return from school. It is better to take a walk on air, to have dinner, and after that to start reading.
Pupils of elementary grades can read without interruption no more than 20 minutes, the senior school students - 30 minutes, with the subsequent short-term break for rest of eyes.
The day regimen includes passive rest - a day and night dream. Duration of day rest no more than 1 hour, night 9-12 hours, at the same time withdrawal to a dream has to be in one and too time, but not later 20. 30 for younger and 22. 30 hours for the senior school students. The dream has to be deep and quiet. It is promoted fresh air in a bedroom, by a pure bed, lack of noise and bright light.
It is necessary to remember that conditions in which the child is engaged exert impact on fatigue of eyes. Landing at a table or a school desk is of great importance. Excessive approach of eyes to a toy, the book, objects causes exhaustion of muscles of a neck and back which support the inclined head in vremyaigra, readings or letters.
A certain static loading which increases at discrepancy of the sizes of furniture is tested by the child, being in kindergarten or school. At the correct landing of a foot of both legs have to concern a floor, forearms freely to lean on a table-top, a back - on a seatback that provides the correct position of a backbone. The table-top inclination ° creates on 12-15 favorable conditions for visual work. With the same purpose during reading at a table it is the best of all to keep the book in the inclined situation, using a special support. Coloring of tables has to be light. It promotes increase of level of illumination of the game room or cool room and reduces visual exhaustion.
Good lighting of the place where children are engaged is important for full visual work. Optimum conditions are created at sufficient on force and uniform natural lighting.
Considerable part of visual work, especially in the oseena - the winter period, is carried out at artificial lighting. Therefore it has to be correctly distributed indoors and provide enough uniform light. The workplace has to be lit with a desk lamp with power not lower than 60 W as smaller power gives not enough light, and stronger causes dazzle. At the same time a lamp it is necessary to have so that light from it fell on the left side, was darkened by nothing, and eyes would remain in the shadow. It is impossible to put a powerful light source behind as at the same time the shadow falling from a body will darken a working surface. It is necessary to watch that the distance from eyes to a working surface was not less than 30-36 cm
television Today, the computer became available sources of information, and for a number of children and teenagers - a main type of leisure. If to spend at the screen 3-4 hours a day, the perception of transfer considerably decreases, there occurs the visual exhaustion, frustration of a dream is noted, headaches are frequent.
The special attention needs to be paid to children of preschool age.
It is necessary to sit in front of the TV at distance 2,5-3 meters from the screen (but not further 5 m) and it is obligatory directly before it as in more short distance of an eye from - for flashings of the image quickly are tired, and the electric field created by the television receiver at distance to 0,5 m exceeds admissible norm. The screen at the same time has to be approximately at the level of eyes of the sitting audience or slightly - is slightly lower. It is not recommended to watch telecasts in the dark. The room has to be softly lit, the lamp should be placed so that light did not get into eyes and was not reflected in the screen. Otherwise there occurs the visual exhaustion from - for big contrast of the bright image and a dark background.
It is not necessary to watch TV lying. And, certainly, viewing of telecasts should not disturb a dream and rest. The sound has to be moderate, and the image - accurate. It is the best of all to draw up to himself the plan of viewing of telecasts, and in not planned hours to take itself for the rule not to approach the TV at all. Both your sight, and your health in general depends on it.
Good and various nutrition has paramount value among the factors providing the normal growth and development, regulating activity of internals, the central nervous system and, of course, sight. The mode and culture of food are of great importance. A basis of activity of an organism are the proteins providing a metabolism, and also full-fledged sight. These are organic compounds it is impossible to replace with anything. They come to our organism only with food. Most of all proteins contain in milk, meat, fish, eggs, potatoes, peas.
The main source of energy are fats and carbohydrates. Fats are necessary for the person for digestion of mineral salts and vitamins. They provide protection of an organism against an infection, increase its cold resistance. The preference should be given to vegetable fats. It is necessary to observe moderation in the use of carbohydrates.
The special role in preservation of health and full-fledged sight is played by vitamins which use has to be systematic.
The liver, butter, an egg yolk, carrots, parsley, green onions, a sorrel, blackcurrant, bilberry, tomatoes, peaches, apricots and other products contain carotene which in a human body turns into vitamin A. Its shortcoming leads to lag in growth and development, at the same time disorders of twilight sight are observed, and at defeat of a cornea - deep frustration which can lead to a blindness.
Vitamin B participates in a carbohydrate exchange, partly in an exchange of proteins and fats, and also in cellular respiration. At its shortcoming defeat of the central nervous system and peripheral is observed. This insufficiency is shown in the form of neuritis of an optic nerve.
The lack of B2 vitamin leads to disorders of food of a cornea, superficial vessels of a cornea, its turbidity, disorder of light sensitivity and twilight sight are as a result formed. It can be avoided on condition of the sufficient use in food of dairy and fish products, eggs, bean.
At a lack of vitamin C which there is a lot of in a citrus, greens, berries hemorrhages under a conjunctiva quite often develop. Not less other vitamins also are important for preservation of full-fledged sight: B6, B12, D, K, K, PP. But not only various food, but its mode is important for good sight. Scientific researches showed that it is the most expedient 4-5 - multiple food. Intervals between meals have to make not less than 4 - x hours. Such food disciplines an organism, accustoms to the established rhythm, promotes the best assimilation of food.
If you satisfy all these conditions, then it will help you and your children to keep your sight, good health, working capacity, so to achieve good results during a long course of life.