Rus Articles Journal

Why walruses do not freeze?

Spring in the heat, but even to swim in the Black Sea happens cold. And as walruses - fans of winter swimming - with pleasure lap in ice cold water? Why they do not freeze?

Scientists from Institute of clinical and experimental medicine conducted recently the whole complex of researches of reactions of an organism to sharp cooling which happens when bathing in ice water. Production of heat in an organism walruses it was estimated on oxygen consumption, a body thermolysis - on the skin temperature taken in ten various points.

Also temperature " was defined; kernels bodies (in acoustical pass), electric activity of muscles and efficiency of oxygen. All these parameters characterize biochemical processes in an organism which provide combustion of " fuel; and production of heat.

18 men who are fond of winter swimming not one year took part in experiment. Within 20 minutes just before bathing walruses were in the warm room with the air temperature of 26 degrees Celsius. Here by means of the imposed sensors and devices were made background measurements (before bathing). Swimming in the winter river where water temperature was about 0, lasted 30 seconds.

After this within 20 minutes repeated measurements in the same warm room were taken.

What occurs at immersion in ice water?

Is sharp, by 4-5 times oxygen consumption increases, breath becomes more active, muscular activity increases. All these indicators come back to initial, background to values quickly enough, not later than in 10-15 minutes after bathing.

At immersion in ice water body temperature at once changes, but is unequal. Sharply the skin surface temperature, and temperature " decreases; kernels on the contrary, increases. Obviously, it is connected with fast increase in development of heat in an organism, he seeks to offset losses at immersion in an ice-hole.

At once after bathing temperature of skin begins to increase, already in a few minutes it is close to air temperature indoors and continues to grow. In twenty minutes after bathing this growth stops and temperature of skin is stabilized. Temperature kernels on the contrary, after bathing decreases and becomes below norm. Only when walrus 1-2 minutes will stay in heat, it begins to be restored, continuously increasing, and is stabilized in 20 minutes after bathing.

So, in 20 minutes of system of thermal control provide to an organism return to an initial state. Most of researchers consider that regulatory processes are directed to supporting by a constant heat content size, or, in other words, the average body temperature which is determined by temperature covers (skin) and temperature kernels .

Stay in ice water puts in action some reserve mechanisms of heat production in an organism which do not work in a usual situation. Perhaps, and training of an organism is closely connected with training such spare " furnaces;.