Lithograph ofWord “ lithograph “ comes from two Greek words “ litos “ - stone and “ column “ - I write. It is a type of a flat engraving for as which printing form serves the stone, limestone of special breed, gray, bluish or yellowish color.
On carefully polished stone the artist draws fat ink by means of a feather or a brush. If it uses a fat lithographic pencil, then previously wipes a stone with wet sand that its surface became granular, rough. Quite often the artist draws on special paper a fat pencil, and then, having put to a stone surface the face paper, grinds in it so that traces of a pencil imprint on a stone.
Then a stone surface slightly pickle solution of arabic gum or nitric acid. At the same time fat places where there is drawing, do not perceive acid. In turn other surface of a stone after etching does not accept the fatty substances which are contained in typographical paint, in the course of printing it sticks only to the drawing put with the artist.
A kind of lithograph - an algraphy. Here is a printing form on which the artist carries out drawing, the aluminum plate serves. Color reproductive lithograph is called chromolithography. It is printed from several stones, and for every color the separate stone is used. Mixed tone receive imposing of one color on another.
Lithograph appeared rather recently, in 1798, and quickly was widely adopted. Wide soft, velvety lines, deep black tone, characteristic of lithograph, involved in it artists - T. Gericault`s romantics, E. Delacroix in France, R. P. Bonington in England, T. Goya in Spain … Especially the artists working in the field of agitation and propaganda, socially - critical, newspaper, journal and easel graphics appreciated lithograph. An opportunity to quickly print inexpensive prints big circulations allowed them to respond in due time to actual events of the time, to interfere actively in a thick of social and political problems.