February 5: Day of Runeberg in Finland. Who is he, the last romantic of Europe?the Swede who wrote all the works on native, Swedish, language and become not only “ first national poet of Finland “ but also classic of the Finnish literature. The citizen of the Russian Empire who is awarded the order by Alexander II of St Ann 2 - y degrees and from his easy hand received an honorary title of the doctor of divinity about which practically nothing is known in Russia, but day of its birth is a national holiday of the country in which modern territory he was born, lived and died. Though he did not live in the country day. Just because the country it became in 40 years after his death. And that is not at once.
All this is about Yujana Ludvig Runeberg. The person who laid the foundation to modern Finnish literature. The ingenious poet, whose creativity became history not only the Scandinavian romanticism, but also made the Finnish literature the integral component of the all-European and world literary processes.
About it P. A. Pletnev somehow wrote: “ This is the person directly ingenious. Such is there was Pushkin “. We somehow still remember the Alexander Sergeyevich. And here Finnish Yujan Ludvig … In general! And somehow it seems to me … Wrong it. It is wrong when we is rather quietly audible of Hugo, Shelley, Petefi, Lermontov: “ Yes, we know “ … And having heard “ Runeberg “ puzzly we shrug shoulders: “ Who such is? From whose will be? “
And Yujan Ludvig not only one of them but also equal to them in size and the importance the romantic of the European level. And it is possible to tell about it big and thick monographs - it is quiet! A lot of things was in uncommon and tragic destiny of this great poet loving the native land of the citizen, strong in spirit person.
The father Yukhana - Lorenz Ulrique - was the captain of merchant marine fleet. For this reason they with the young wife - coming from a merchant family of Bulltrouts, Anna Maria - lived in a small seaport of Piyetarsaari. Which lay on the coast of the Baltic Sea, and is more concrete - its Gulf of Bothnia, and had the second name - Yakobstad. And all because though it was also the Finnish province, but shvedoyazychny area - Esterbotten. This area, as well as all Finland, already six centuries was a part of Sweden.
Only after end russko - the Swedish war of 1808 - 1809, according to the Fridrikhsgamsky peace treaty, Finland, having received the status of the autonomous principality, was a part of the Russian Empire. But in 1803 when Lorenz Ulrique and Anna Maria played a wedding, they still were citizens of the Swedish crown. And when almost in a year, on February 5, 1804, in their family the firstborn was born, he, as well as his hometown, received two a name. Finnish Yukhan and Swedish - Ludvig.
And then there was a war. That, russko - Swedish. Military operations took place near Piyetarsaari. And the earliest (and the brightest!) children`s memoirs of little Yujan Ludvig - about this war. As he, four-year-old, sits on a lap known and then the Russian general Yakov Kulnev respected in Finland. The famous commander who already adequately passed two Turkish wars and in this, russko - the Swedish company, covered itself with glory in heroic alandsky expedition, fights near Kuortane and Orovays.
Then, in 1809 - m, nobody even suspected that it is the first pebble in the base of future creative heritage of the poet. Before was for a long time. For now …
So far Yujana executed eight years and it was sent to get an education in Oulu (Oleaborg). After death of the uncle at whom there lived Runeberg future poet continued training already in Vaas. Will power and persistence on achievement of the purpose - these lines without which hardly that would turn out in this life at Yujan Ludvig, were fully inherent in him and in school days. From a class it passed into a class only with honors. Other estimates for young Runeberg just did not exist.
Also the desire of the young man to continue education was quite natural. In the fall of 1822 Runeberg entered the only then university of Finland which was placed in the capital of the country of that time, the city of Turku (Abo).
By the way, interesting historical coincidence. In the same year two more young men, subsequently, together with Yujan Ludvig who played an important role in formation of the Finnish culture became students of university, or Abo Academy as it was called then. This is Elias Lyonnrot (1802 - 1884) whom we know as the creator of the Finnish national epos “ Kalevala “. And Uechan Wilhelm Snelman (1806 - 1881), in the future - the famous philosopher and the publicist of Finland.
But it in the future, and then … Then it was necessary to study, to get university education. Here only that to make it - money is necessary. And Yujan Ludvig did not have them.
In a year Runeberg forcedly interrupts training to hold a paid position of the house teacher in a family of the captain of E. G. Af Enzelma living in rural areas Saariyarvi. Podkopiv money, Yukhan at the beginning of 1827 will receive degree of the candidate of philosophy. And in the summer of the same year will become the master.
But … All this will be then. Then! And then, in 1823 - m, Runeberg goes to Saariyarvi. And two years spent there will be very important, defining for all further career of the poet.
For the first time Yukhan appeared in deep Finland. And there all … Everything was at all not as on the coast! In those places where he grew up … Another was the nature. People were others. Living, maybe, and not such arranged life as former acquaintances of Yujan Ludvig, but goodhearted, courageous, patient, firmly soldered together by feeling of a patriarchal collectivism.
Here, in Saariyarvi, it got acquainted with old retired an unter - the officer Pelander who then eventually will become a prototype of a fenrik of Stol. But, besides, would not be any “ Legends “ this fenrik if Runeberg did not absorb in himself all those details russko - the Swedish war, history and jokes about her heroes - known and anonymous which, having connected to his own children`s impressions, will give a subject and poetic basis of one of his most known works subsequently.
Do not learn the poet of life of peasants of the Finnish remote place, - would not be any “ Elks Hunters “ which main characters will be they. Peasants of the Finnish remote place.
Yes, Yujan Ludvig will write all the works on native for him, Swedish. But he will write about life of the Finnish peasant. And the Finn will become the main hero of his works. That which can endure everything without grumble transfers all vicissitudes of life, is content with small, remaining selflessly true and devoted to the native land. Which can and is severe, but from that it is not less hotly loved.
All this is quite sufficient in order that historians of the Finnish literature rightfully carried Yujan Ludvig to classics, and a prolog to “ To Legends of a fenrik of Stol “ - poem “ Our edge “ - became the anthem of Finland.
All this will be. Then. Later. Ambassador Saariyarvi.
Runeberg will have time to splash out on paper all that he will absorb in himself for those two years what will carry out by the house teacher in the Finnish remote place. The poet will die on May 6, 1877. The last of the European romantics, having for a long time endured all the colleagues from literary shop. Will die, but as the poet, will remain in memory of those people about which it wrote. And this memory will be not only grateful, but also long.
In any case, and today, on February 5, all Finland celebrates Day of Runeberg. In any, even to the smallest school, this day surely there is a lesson “ real literature “ and on each Finnish table indispensable runebergsky cake is served.
In article information of a biographic sketch on Runeberg, the author E. Dorofeyeva is used.