At different times were published a set of publications about various novelties, inventions in the hour industry in various glossy magazines, and also about their authors, and here less known opening in this area remained “ off-screen “ though deserve attention too.
Thanks to large-scale PR - the companies which are carried out by the Swiss firms for journalists of popular editions, consumers learned that the TOURBILLON was created by Abraham - Louis Brege. And here the fact that the master almost all the life was forced to justify himself before contemporaries also to prove that the tourbillon is very useful, know the few. If to speak about its advantage now, then opinions are absolutely ambiguous and disputes are conducted till today. Though hour history knows a set of the opening which had huge value, but names of their authors are known only to the little.
the Clockwork spring
Christiaan Huygens was invented 1659 by
B the " system; balance - a spiral “ taken the law on fluctuation of a pendulum opened by Galilei as a basis. It is possible to tell that history of modern hours begins from this point. And here emergence of a clockwork spring did not create such furor, but value of this invention cannot be underestimated. The first hours made with application of a spring were created in 1504 in Nuremberg. The watchmaker Peter Genlayn worked the invention in a portable chronometer. It was equipped with a spring, but not the massive weight, it gave the chance to the master to place a clockwork in an iron box of the insignificant sizes.
the Invention of a second hand
Distinctive feature of the first pocket watch was lack of glass, existence of one hour hand and a special marking volume laid on indexes, but not figures. It allowed to define time even in complete darkness by means of fingers. Approximately in 1700 hours began to be equipped with the arrow showing minutes. And already at the end of the eighteenth century - in 1780 - Thomas Myyudzh created the first hours on which there was a second hand. It was put on a shaft of a wheel of free anchor descent (the famous invention of George Graham, the teacher Myyudzha) which was in the region of the mark “ 6 “. Since then became possible to define time to within a second. Hour stones
the British master George Graham invented
not only free anchor descent which can be considered as a prototype of modern mechanisms, belongs to his authorship one more opening, the long amount of time and to be very reliable which allowed clockworks to serve. This invention - stones, their number is in marking of any caliber. What role of hour stones? They are urged to carry out function of bearings which connect pins of axes and bridges. To maintain pressure of a thin and sharp pin of an axis, only rubies, diamonds and sapphires as they have the highest durability approach. Hours in which mechanism jewels are installed were rather expensive, and only wealthy people could get them. Only at the beginning of the twentieth century in 1902 began to grow up artificial rubies - corundum. After that and till today in the mechanism of hours of 15 and more stones.
the Name to this device pledged to
two Greek words: chronos - time and grapho - I write. On the horse races which are carried out on the Field of Mars in the capital of France, on September 1, 1821 by the watchmaker of the king Nicolas - Mathieu Riessec carried out timing, and the chronograph created by him was used. On this device which received the name “ second chronograph “ to it the patent for a period of 5 years was granted. Riessec`s chronograph was widely adopted at athletes, even in spite of the fact that in use it was insufficiently convenient - the mechanism had no shooters showing hours and seconds.
The Swiss watchmaker Adolf to Nikola in 1844 took out the patent for the mechanism in which the second hand came back to a starting position. It became possible thanks to the invention of a cam in the form of a heart, this reception allows an arrow to return at the time of start from any point to zero situation. Almost in twenty years in 1862 it presented an advanced chronograph, its mechanism worked at this principle. The first Split - a chronograph was presented in 1879, and in 1883 there was a sample which had two buttons. The beginning of mass production of a watch at the beginning of the twentieth century practically coincided with emergence of wrist chronographs, at first single-knob in 1910, and in 1939 the Breiling company let out the first two-push-button chronograph.
Emergence of autosubplant
One of the most famous inventors in the hour sphere is Abraham - Louis Brege - shveytsarsko - the French master whose finds contain several revolutionary opening. Brege is the author of the tourbillon, it began to do gilyoshirovanny dials. But, as history shows, it could reach big heights in improvement of already existing foreign ideas though it demands talent and knowledge too. It is possible to give completion of works with anchor descent which were conducted by Graham and Myyudzhem as an example. The master made it such what can see in modern clockworks. Besides, Brege brought to perfection Abraham`s opening - Louis Perelle, by the way, the Perellet brand is called by his name. Perelle was pupil Brege and began to apply the first the rotating rotor to the spring self-starter. Brege used this find, introduced amendments and did the pocket watch already with use of the drive. The watchmaker John Harwood patented the mechanism of autosubplant for a watch in 1924.
of Brasletnaya a fastener - a butterfly - a fruit of collaboration of two companies
Is not present unambiguous opinion on whether the well-known trading house Cartier is an independent producer of hours or this brand making jewelry just placed orders and let out them under the name. But the company does not do a secret of the fact that many progress of Cartier is closely connected with Jaeger LeCoultre. Cooperation of the Alsace manufacturer Zhezher and Louis Cartier began in 1957, the company bought from it on an exclusive basis flat clockworks. Then Cartier begins to decorate the products and to use cut diamonds and cabochons. Besides, Cartier and Zhezher in 1909 created and took out the patent for a new fastener for thongs, it is considered much more convenient than those that were applied before.
Of course, it is possible to argue on what innovations in the field of a clockwork belong to Cartier, but the fact that putting on every time is unambiguous and removing a watch with a fastener - a butterfly on a leather thong, it is necessary to remember that we are obliged by it to the well-known French company.