Evolution of values: Greyvs`s theory and spiral dynamics ofAuthor: Alexey Kapterev
Vo`s institute to the second half 20 - go centuries there was a set of the theories describing individual evolution of consciousness proceeding from observed, empirical data. Piaget (Piaget) watched the cognitive line of development, Kolberg (Kohlberg) - moral development, Levinger (Loevinger) - development of consciousness, Maslou (Maslow), the author well-known “ Maslou`s pyramids “ - behind development of requirements, Greyvs (Graves) - behind development of system of values.
It was noticed that most of people in the development pass through certain stages, and some pass further, and some “ get stuck “. Researches in the cultures other than culture of the West showed that the same stages, with only that difference are characteristic of people in them that the most part of the population is in less developed cultures at earlier stages of development (though it does not exclude emergence in these cultures of certain thinkers of higher order).
What criterion of higher order? The main criterion is relative complexity of system. In process of evolutionary development systems can become complicated. History of society in itself was followed by complexity growth approximately a million times. If primitive societies can consist of hundreds or thousands of people, then modern society cannot exist at number of members less than 100 million, and recently and this quantity insufficiently for realization of the most difficult technologies becomes obvious.
It should be noted especially that in systems not any complexity, but complexity which allows system to function more effectively within external system collects. For an animal it will be the ecosphere, for the person - society, and for the country - set of other countries with which cultural ties are established.
What gives the grounds to draw an analogy between stages of individual development and public stages? The matter is that the consciousness of the person is culturally - caused, in society mechanisms of inheritance of level of thinking, vertical transfer of ideas operate. Each next generation inherits ideas previous that gives it the chance easier to move to the following level of the development. Thus, if today we see how certain individuals develop in the fact that it seems to us more difficult and high stages, we can assume that all society will follow further them.
In 1970 - 90 - x years the American psychologist Cler Greyvs *, and then his followers, Chris Cowen (Chris Cowan), Don Beck (Don Beck) and Ken Wilbur (Ken Wilber) developed new socially - the evolutionary theory called subsequently by the theory of spiral dynamics. This evolutionary theory was chosen among many others as, in my opinion, it most fully describes possible steps of evolution of development both the person, and society **. Levels of development in Greyvs`s theory are described through consciousness paradigms (which for convenience are coded in various flowers from beige to yellow). These paradigms of consciousness, or the valuable complexes including spiritual beliefs, cultural ideas, the moral principles, training models etc. arise in process of emergence of need for them in the course of sociocultural evolution.
Each next stage of development satisfies requirements which were not satisfied (or were suppressed) with the previous step of development of a civilization. Fundamental difference from social Darwinism consists in holichesky approach here - each following level of development of society in it is considered as the next level of a holarkhiya including previous. As a result, the highest levels of development of society do not deny, and include previous.
According to the theory of spiral dynamics, at the top level of a cultural holarkhiya there are so-called valuable memes of the highest order - in the English terminology of vMeme (further - tsmema). Everyone tsmy represents system of values which finally causes certain beliefs, social groupings, motivation patterns, organizational dynamics, the purposes. If we artificially try to introduce in the society of the decision or structure corresponding tsmy, other than on what there is society they will be torn away. The model is hierarchical, that is tsmema in it go as the increasing complexity, but at the same time opened, that is the final point is unknown. Today eight levels of a holarkhiya which are given below are described.
1) Beige - automatic, instinctive thinking.
the Level of the Stone Age not especially widespread today on the planet. At this level instincts of a survival dominate, the person behaves in general as animal, though the cleverest. Social organization: small breeding groups.
Ethics: no. Ethically what promotes a survival.
Modern examples: newborns and very old people.
Prerequisites to transition to new level: understanding of as persons, comprehension prichinno - investigative communications, concern in a survival which demands group interaction.
2) Violet - animistichny, breeding.
Animistic, magic, ordinary thinking. The individual submits to interests of group. Emphasis on group rituals and to worship of spirits. Blood relations are very strong. Strong power of shamans / leaders.
Ethics: ethically everything that does well the tribe.
Modern examples: tribes of Africa.
Prerequisites to transition: emergence of a prepotent ego, the personality who is stronger than group, limitation of niches for existence.
3) Red - egocentric, power.
Rigid authoritarianism, is shown in a rabovladelchestvo or similar forms of operation of unqualified labor. The power through the leader and several vassals (two-level model). Belief that people are lazy and them it is necessary to force to work. The real leaders suppress in themselves human emotions. It is characteristic of the early states.
Ethics: strong is right.
Modern examples: street gangs, African kingdoms.
Prerequisites to transition: recognition of the power of morals, search of sense and purpose of life, increase in range of planning.
4) Blue - absolutist, sacred.
Patriotic thinking, only a certain way to think, submission of the power, imposing of sense of guilt for discrepancy to group norms, self-sacrifice for the sake of the prime target. Active protection “ the “ from encroachments “ strangers “. Well works in industrial economies. Emergence of difficult hierarchies. “ To Think locally - to work globally “.
Ethics: religious or quasi - religious.
Modern examples: Puritan states of the USA, modern Confucian Chinese families, Islamic states.
Prerequisites to transition: search of the best choice from many alternatives, search of happiness in this life, detection of errors of the church / management.
5) Orange - materialistic, focused on achievements.
Rationalism, private business for the sake of own benefit, the economic motivation, the competition improves productivity and quality of goods, promotes growth. Perhaps, dominating tsmy in modern America. “ To Think locally - to work locally “.
Ethics: secular law above all.
Modern examples: “ capitalists “ USA, Western Europe.
Prerequisites to transition: detection of the fact that material well-being does not bring happiness, the updated feeling of a collectivism, discontent with the competition and an inequality.
6) Green - sotsiotsentrichesky.
Emphasis on joint growth, equality, humanity, tolerance, stability, attention to environmental issues. Motivation - the human relations and training. Openness and trust, but not the competition are appreciated. The leader become less autocratic, hierarchies are washed away. Efficiency falls, there comes stagnation. “ To Think globally - to work globally “.
Ethics: laws are important, but they have to serve welfare of all.
Modern examples: social states of Europe, Greenpeace, left movement.
Prerequisites to transition: too high cost of collective decisions, need to compete with the systems incurring the smaller number of social obligations.
7) Yellow - system, integrating.
Motivation training, emphasis on growth, changes, calls. The system thinking, ecology passes into the background (but remains), the plan contacts the first system effectiveness. Recognition of value of chaos and self-organization. “ To Think globally - to work locally “.
Ethics: ethics are subject of the contract between people, but not the states.
Modern examples: companies of hi-tech sector.
Prerequisites to transition: search of an order in chaos, search of the directing principles, connection of spirituality and physics.
8) Turquoise - globalist, modernizatorsky.
Synergetic, holographic thinking, an opportunity to fully see merits and demerits of the previous levels, integrating them into uniform integrity.
Modern examples: theory of Gayi, “ global village “ idea of pluralistic harmony of Gandhi.
Important feature of this model is that each odd level is focused mainly on individual values, and even - on collective (except the last where collective and individual values are in harmony). Thus, value of culture, collective subjective will be especially big on “ violet “ “ blue “ “ green “ level. On the contrary, on “ red “ the distinct priority of force, on " will be observed; orange “ - money and individual freedoms, on “ yellow “ there will be a belief in ability of society to self-organization, to settlement of the conflict between intersubjektivny and interobjektivny nonviolent ways.
As a rule, societies are non-uniform on memetichesky structure, and, than more developed, difficult society - the bigger in it exists a variety of levels. Levels are not replaced for one night, and do not represent a ladder step, they behave rather as the rolled waves, each following wave is more difficult previous.
According to Beck and Cowen, 10% of the population of Earth are on “ violet “ level, 20% - on “ red “ and 40% - in “ blue “. Other 30% of the population are dispersed on “ orange “ and “ green “ with rare calling in “ yellow “ above.
Process of transition to new level is not something irreversible or inevitable. The corporation, for example, can get stuck on “ blue “ while “ orange “ economic conditions push her to absolutely other style of business management. Usually, it comes to an end with bankruptcy. For the state which got stuck at a low level developments while neighbors left far forward this situation it is fraught with poverty, hit in colonial dependence or rigid “ shock therapy “. At transitional phases when two colors mix up, prepotent color registers capital letters, and recessive - small, for example “ BLUE / ORANGE “ or “ orange / GREEN “.
Within Greyvs`s theory is of special interest just factors of transition (transitional factors), a condition which provide smooth transition from one valuable level to another.
* Clare W. Graves, to the address www. clarewgraves. com is a collection of its scientific works.
** To the address www. clarewgraves. com/theory_content/compared/CGcomp1. htm is published the table in which the comparative analysis of the theory of Greyvs and 25 more psychological evolutionary classifications, including by Maslou, Piaget and others is provided. The analysis shows that Greyvs`s theory is the full and includes all other, earlier theories.