Rus Articles Journal

Biographies of authors of quotes and aphorisms of

the First Russian scientist - the scientist, the writer, the historian, the artist. Lomonosov on November 19 (on old style - on November 8) 1711, in Denisovka Kurostrovskoy`s village of the volost about the village of Holmogora of the Arkhangelsk province, in the peasant`s family - Pomor Vasily Dorofeevich Lomonosov who was engaged in sea trade on own vessels was born. Lomonosov`s mother who died very much early was the deacon`s daughter. From two stepmothers of Lomonosov the second was angry and envious . About the first years of life of Lomonosov there are extremely poor data. Trips with the father to the sea were the best moments in the childhood. From mother Lomonosov learned to read. Learning Gate for it become from where - that the books got by it: Grammar Smotritsky, Arithmetics Magnitsky, Poetic Psalter Simeon Polotsky.

Lomonosov went to Moscow in December, 1730, with the consent of the father, but, apparently, the father released him only for a short time why it also was registered then is in hiding . Having given itself for the nobleman`s son, in January, 1731 it came to the Moscow Slavyano - Greco - Latin academy at Zaikonospassky Monastery ( Spassky schools ) . Stayed about 5 years there. He learned Latin, examined with of that time science . In 1735 among the caused most a stir pupils Lomonosov was sent to St. Petersburg for transfer in the Academic university. In 1736 three from capable pupils, including Lomonosov, were sent by Academy of Sciences to Germany for training in mathematics, physics, philosophy, chemistry and metallurgy. Abroad Lomonosov stayed 5 years: about 3 years in Marburg, about a year in Freyberg, about a year spent in moving, was in Holland. Married still abroad, in 1740, in Marburg, Elizabeth - to Hristina Tsilkh, the daughter of the died member of City Council. Family life of Lomonosov was, apparently, quite quiet. From Lomonosov`s children there was only a daughter Elena who married Konstantinov, the son of the Bryansk priest. Its posterity, as well as posterity of the sister of Lomonosov, in the Arkhangelsk province, exists hitherto.

In June, 1741 (according to other data in January, 1742) Lomonosov returned to Russia and was appointed in academy the graduated in a military academy of AN on a physical class, and in August, 1745 became the first Russian elected to a position of professor (academician) of chemistry. In 1745 he strives on permission to give public lectures in Russian, and in 1746 - about a set of students of seminaries, about multiplication of translated books, on the practical application of natural sciences. At the same time goes in for physics and chemistry, prints scientific treatises in Latin. In 1748 at Academy there are a Historical Department and Historical Meeting in which meetings Lomonosov soon begins to combat Miller, accusing him of deliberate belittling in scientific researches of the Russian people. Same year for Lomonosov the Russia`s first was constructed chemical scientifically - research laboratory. In 1749 in solemn meeting of Academy of Sciences, Lomonosov says Panegyric to the empress Elizabeth Petrovna making great success, also begins to use great attention at court. It approaches Elizabeth`s favourite count I. I. Shuvalov that creates to it the mass of envious persons of whom Schumacher is at the head. In 1753, by means of Shuvalov, Lomonosov manages to receive the privilege on foundation of factory of a mosaic and beads and 211 souls, with the earth, in the Koporsky County. In 1755, under the influence of Lomonosov, the Moscow university opens. In 1756 asserts against Miller the rights of the lowest Russian estate for education in a gymnasium and university. In 1758 it was entrusted to Lomonosov watching behind Geographical department, Historical meeting, university and the Academic gymnasium at AN. Drawing up " was the main objective of Geographical department; Atlas Russian . In 1759 he is busy with the gymnasium device, again asserting the rights of the lowest estates for education. In 1763 it is elected the member of the Russian Academy of Arts. In 1764, under the influence of his composition About northern to the course in OST - India the Siberian ocean expedition to Siberia is equipped. At the end of life Lomonosov was elected by the honorary member Stokgolmskoy (1760) and the Bologna (1764) Academies of Sciences. In the spring of 1765 Lomonosov caught a cold. Died on April 15 (on old style - on April 4) 1765. Shortly before death he was visited by the empress Ekaterina. It is buried on Lazarevskoye Aleksandro`s cemetery - the Nevsky monastery in St. Petersburg.

Among Lomonosov`s works there are works on philology, history, chemistry, physics (on research of atmospheric electricity), astronomies (on May 26, 1761 during passing of Venus on a disk of the Sun opened existence of the atmosphere at it), geophysics (research of terrestrial inclination), geology and mineralogy (proved an organic origin of the soil, peat, coal, oil, amber), development of technology of receiving color glass (among mosaic portraits of its work there is Peter I`s portrait; monumental, about 4,8 m 6,44 m, mosaic Poltava fight 1762 - 1764). Among scientific works - Letter on rules of the Russian stikhotvorstvo (1739, it is published in 1778), Reflections about the reason of warmth and cold (1744), The Word about the birth of metals from Earth tryaseniye (1757), About layers terrestrial (the end of 1750 - x years, it is published in 1763), Russian grammar (1755, it is published in 1757; first scientific grammar of Russian), About light origin, the new theory about flowers representing (1756), About the birth of metals from an earth tryaseniye (1757), The Preface about advantage of books church in the Russian " language; (1758), Reasonings on the big accuracy of a sea way (1759), The Short Russian chronicler with a genealogy (1760, the list of the major events till Peter I`s era inclusive), The Phenomenon of Venus on the sun nablyudenny (1761), About preservation and reproduction of the Russian people (1761, treatise), First bases of metallurgy or ore affairs (1763; the management was is released by the circulation huge for those times - 1225 copies), About the phenomena air from electric force occurring (1763), Ancient Russian history from the beginning of the Russian people before death of the grand duke Yaroslav the First, or till 1054 (1 and 2 parts, it is published in 1766). Among a literary heritage of Lomonosov there are messages, idylls, epigrams, odes, poems, tragedies: On Hotin`s capture (1739, the ode, is published in 1751), The Ode for a solemn holiday of the birth of the Emperor John III and The First trophies of its Majesty of John III through a preslavny victory over Swedes (1741, both odes make a rare book as underwent the general fate - destruction of everything that belonged by the time of the emperor Ioann Antonovich), Evening reflection about Bozhiy majesty as required the great polar lights (1743, ode), Morning reflection about Bozhiy majesty (1743, ode), Tamyra and Selim (1750, tragedy), Demofont (1752, tragedy), Letter on advantage of " glass; (1753, poem), Anthem to a beard (1757, satire), Peter the Great (1760, the poem is not finished)